The Brutal Destruction of Yugoslavia (1991‒1995)

Hits: 172

The brutal destruction of ex-Yugoslav Federal state-system was in a form of the civil wars or, in another word, a chain of violent conflicts from 1991 to 1995. From the spring of 1992, the SFRY already did not exist as a state and, therefore, the conflicts were turned into the Wars of the Yugoslav Succession.

The Yugoslav civil wars can be comprised of the three closely related armed conflicts:

1) War in Slovenia in 1991.

2) War in Croatia from 1991 to 1995.

3) War in Bosnia-Herzegovina from 1992 to 1995.[i]

In the year of 1990, the real potential for the armed conflict became quite obvious. At that time, the country was already affected by both economic and financial crisis and confronted by tremendously rising nationalism and ethnic rivalries among all biggest national and confessional groups and their respective republics. On one hand, the exact and precise causes of the resulting civil wars were complex and historically deeply rooted, on another hand, they were characterized by interlinked ethnic and confessional struggles which were involving the greatest part of the Yugoslav population but primarily the Serbs, the Croats, and the Bosniaks. In Bosnia-Herzegovina, the main conflict was between the Serbs and the Bosniaks but to complicate the issue, fighting and atrocities took as well as a place between the Croats and the Bosniaks followed by separate series of violence between rival Bosniak groups. Nevertheless, in order to win public support, nationalist leaders became engaged in psychological warfare and propaganda that the destruction of common Yugoslav state was quite necessary for the creation of nation-states and, therefore, better life.[ii]    

A new 1991 year started with a fear of the escalation of the political conflicts into a real war as on January 9th the Yugoslav collective Presidency issued order to disarm all paramilitary formations but firstly aimed at those in Croatia, especially the HDZ party’s militia – the Rally of National Guard (the ZNG). In neighboring Bosnia-Herzegovina at the same time started a year-long commemoration of the Serb victims of WWII on the territory of the Independent State of Croatia, organized by the Serbian Orthodox Church. On January 25th the Presidency of the SFRY, despite the frustration by Serbia and Montenegro, passed decision not to permit military intervention by the YPA in Croatia what was de facto recognition of the end of Yugoslavia. On the same day, the People’s Assembly of Macedonia (Sobranie) issued the Declaration of Sovereignty and Independence without any reaction from Belgrade.

The further killing of Yugoslavia came from Zagreb where the Croatian Parliament on February 21st issued a proclamation that Croatia’s law has superiority over the Yugoslav legislation, and at the same time adopted the resolution on initiating the procedure of secession from Yugoslavia. However, Croatia’s Serbs reacted immediately as on February 28th Serb National Council of Serb Autonomous Region of Krayina adopted the Declaration on Separation from Croatia remaining within the state of Yugoslavia. The first massive exodus of civilians happened on March 4th when several thousands of Serbs took refuge in Serbia from the Danube basin in Croatia as they were threatening with massacres by the Croat ZNG and other paramilitary formations which were using WWII Ustashi slogans, insignias and uniforms.[iii] On March 12th and 13th, there was failed attempt at the extraordinary session of the SFRY Presidency to declare a state of emergency followed by the proclamation of independence of the Serb Autonomous Region of Krayina in Croatia on March 15th. On next day, President of Serbia announced that “Yugoslavia is finished”. On March 31st the Croatian regular police attacked Serbian villages around Plitvice but were fired back by local Serbian defense units (one Croat policeman – Josip Jović and one Serb – Rajko Vukadinović were killed with injuries on both sides). Basically, on this day the civil war in Yugoslavia started from a technical point of view.[iv] On May 2nd twelve Croatian policemen were killed by the Serbian territorial defense forces in the village of Borovo Selo near Vukovar as they attempted to occupy the village and commit massacre over local Serbs.

The final process of Croatia’s secession from Yugoslavia took place on May 19th when Tudjman’s Government organized a referendum in Croatia on the independence which was boycotted by the Serbs. In order to formally try to save some kind of Yugoslavia, the Bosnian-Herzegovinian President Alija Izetbegović and the Macedonian President Kiro Gligorov proposed asymmetric (graduated) federation as a solution to the crisis but it was too late to save the country even after a meeting between Izetbegović, Tudjman and Milošević in Split on June 12th. Three days later (June 15th) the official delegations of Croatia and Slovenia met in Ljubljana to agree on mutual harmonization of the coming political moves toward a formal proclamation of independence and secession from the rest of Yugoslavia. Finally, the Parliaments of both Slovenia and Croatia proclaimed formal sovereignty and independence on the same day – June 25th regardless of the warning by the US Secretary of State James Baker that Washington opposes both Slovenian and Croatian independence as well as the use of force by the Yugoslav Government for the sake to preserve the SFRY.     

  

The end of results of the renewed nationalisms among the Yugoslavs in the 1970s and the 1980s, propagated firstly by the nationalistic dissidents (like Tudjman and Izetbegović) and finally by newly formed nationalistic political parties was the destruction of Yugoslavia as a common homeland of the South Slavs (except the Bulgarians) in the 1990s. Instead of it, there were created separate nation-states for each ethnic group followed by the ethnic cleansing of the others. The dissident national ideologues of the 1970s and the 1980s, like their the 19th-century predecessors, drawn up mutually quite incompatible maps of their desired nation-states as on such imagined maps, different united nation-states claimed in many cases the same territories.[v] As a matter of fact, in order to realize in the practice such maps, it was quite necessary for the advocates of those contesting ideologies to win political power in their respective republics and/or regions that was exactly happened in 1990 as a consequence of multi-party elections in all six republics of ex-Yugoslavia. In essence, what started as an ideological contest over territory, in the 1990s was turned into the civil wars over the same territories. The focal aim of these wars was to establish several united nation-states on the lands often inhabited by an intermixed ethnic and confessional group of peoples. But in the ethnically and religiously overmixed territories, the founding of unified nation-states by the military means, in fact inevitably, led to the forced expulsion or elimination of those who did not belong to the “proper” national group and, therefore, in all such problematic territories in which the conflict existed, the members of one or more ethnic or confessional groups became victims. For instance, in 1991 the Croatian civilians were expelled from the Serb-controlled territories in Tudjman’s Croatia but at the same time, the Serb civilians were expelled from their homes across Croatia. In the spring of 1992, the Serb paramilitary forces expelled the Bosnian-Herzegovinian Muslim civilians from the eastern parts of the republic but in 1995 the combined forces of Muslims and Croats forced the Serb civilians to leave West Bosnia-Herzegovina as they succeeded to occupy it with the great support of the US Clinton administration. The Croat paramilitary detachments with a help of regular Croatia’s army evicted first the Serbian civilians from West Herzegovina in 1992, and later the Bosniaks as well (for instance, the infamous case of the Bosniak populated Ahmići village). However, during the military conflict between the Croats and the Bosniaks in Central Bosnia-Herzegovina in 1993‒1994 many local Croats were expelled from their homes. The Croats, too, turned on Bosnian-Herzegovinian Bosniaks, seizing large areas around Mostar – a city which experienced months of heavy artillery bombardment by the Croat forces[vi] which started on May 9th, 1993 a general attack on the Muslim East Mostar, systematically destroying this part of the city. They expelled the Bosniaks from West Mostar which was under the Croat control or deported them to the concentration camps (Heliodrom near Mostar, Dretelj, Gabela, Ljubuški) where they were starved, tortured and killed. The mid-16th-century Old Bridge in Mostar over the River Neretva was destroyed by the Croat forces on May 9th, 1993.     

The final destruction of Yugoslavia started when on June 25th, 1991, at the time of the general collapse of the Communist regimes in East-Central and South-East Europe, Slovenia and Croatia declared their independence from the Yugoslav federation to be recognized by the international community. The same did Macedonia in September 1991 followed by Bosnia-Herzegovina in October of the same year. However, Serbia and Montenegro continued to identify themselves as parts of (shorten) Yugoslavia and established a new federation in April 1992 (until 2006). Their combined territory and population represented around 40 per cent of the former-Titoslavia.[vii]

The civil war and violence which became as a consequence of the political propaganda and electoral campaigns of the new national and nationalistic political parties across Yugoslavia were quite predictable in the terms of the national ideologies advocated by those parties and party’s leadership. Whoever opposed such ideologies became labeled as a foreign enemy or/and political instrument of such an enemy real or imagined. But the focal issue became an idea that to use a force, on legal or not way did not matter, against foreign enemies and their “inner fifth column” was not only legitimate and justified but as well as necessary. Subsequently, the political post-elections’ leaders in Yugoslavia proceeded to struggle against all of those whom they labeled as foreign enemies and their domestic collaborators. For instance, the new Croatia’s Government (with old WWII Ustashi ideology and iconography) and its security and paramilitary detachments (in many cases dressed in the Ustashi uniforms or having Ustashi insignias) became the foreign enemy of the Serb Krayina regional political leaders, while, at the same time, the Serb Krayina leaders and their militias were, for the Croatian Government, instruments of the foreign Government in Belgrade. After June 25th, 1991, the YPA formations in Slovenia and Croatia were officially declared by Ljubljana and Zagreb as a foreign occupying force what happened the same for Bosnia-Hercegovina’s Muslim Government next year too.[viii]     

On March 1st‒2nd, 1992, in a referendum which was boycotted by Bosnian-Herzegovinian Serbs, more than 60 per cent of Bosnian-Herzegovinian citizens voted for an independence – practically the Croats and the Bosniaks (at that time officially called as the Muslims) and, therefore, gave a formal legitimacy to the political move when the Bosnian-Herzegovinian Croat and the Bosniak representatives in the Parliament in Sarajevo proclaimed an independence of Bosnia-Herzegovina already on October 15th, 1991 and, as a consequence, broke the previous political deal with the Serbs. However, the proclamation of independence was after the referendum results followed by its recognition by the European Community (today the European Union) on April 6th, 1992[ix] forcing at such a way the Bosnian-Herzegovinian Serbs to rebel on the same day with the focal aim to separate their own ethnographic territory what they formally did by their own political proclamation on the night between April 5th and 6th, 1992 under the name of the Serbian Republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina (capital in Sarajevo) but soon (on August 12th, 1992) renamed into the Republic of Srpska which was recognized by nobody in the world including the FRY as well.

The territory of Republic of Srpska (capital in Pale nearby Sarajevo) was finally bordered till December 1992 being composed of almost 70 per cent of Bosnia-Herzegovina primarily due to overwhelming military superiority of the Bosnian-Herzegovinian Serbs based on comprehensive support of neighboring Serbia. However, the Bosnian-Herzegovinian Croats soon followed the Serb example, rejecting the authority of the central Bosnian-Herzegovinian Government and declaring their own Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia (capital in Mostar in West Herzegovina) on July 5th, 1992 with the full backing of neighboring Croatia. For the Croats, the Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia was nothing else but, in fact, “South Croatia”.[x] Furthermore, the Muslims (Bosniaks) in West Bosnia (Cazinska Krajina) proclaimed first their own autonomous region (Autonomous Province of West Bosnia) and later on July 26th, 1994 an independent Republic of West Bosnia (capital in Velika Kladuša) being at that time not under the real control of the central Government in Sarajevo. The conflict in Bosnia-Herzegovina soon after Western countries recognized its formal sovereignty turned into a bloody three-sided inter-ethnic civil war for the territories, with civilians of all ethnicities becoming victims of unprecedented crimes after WWII in Europe.[xi]

The Yugoslav civil wars of the 1990s ended in several stages and in differing ways from the military pressure and intervention to diplomacy and negotiations. Nevertheless, what they shared in common were two points of their ultimate results:

1) International recognition of newly proclaimed independent and sovereign states instead of a single Yugoslavia.

2) Massive economic disruption to all successor states which in the cases of Bosnia-Herzegovina and Serbia resulted in significant failures of these states. 

As the formal day of the end of a “Greater” Yugoslavia, it can be considered April 27th, 1992 when the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (the FRY) was proclaimed in Belgrade instead of it. This “Shortened” Yugoslavia was composed just of two ex-Yugoslav republics: Montenegro and Serbia (with Kosovo-Metochia and Vojvodina). The process of military destruction of ex-Yugoslavia was formally ended by signing the Dayton Accord on Bosnia-Herzegovina on November 21st, 1995. In October 1995, a ceasefire agreement was reached in Bosnia-Herzegovina under the US pressure, and the leaders of three nations in conflict agreed to attend a peace conference in Dayton (Ohio, the USA) in November. The accord was covering ethnopolitical entity borders, electoral procedures, instruments for the protection of human rights, and return of refugees and displaced persons. Two ethnopolitical entities (the Bosniak-Croat Federation and the Republic of Srpska) within Bosnia-Herzegovina would function as a state by having joint institutions of two-chamber Parliament, three-member Presidency, Council of Ministers, Constitutional Court, and Central Bank.[xii]

The Yugoslav conflicts in the 1990s are usually referred in the West as the deadliest violence and wars in Europe since 1945 due to the severity and intensity of the struggle followed by brutal ethnic cleansing, war crimes and elements of genocide. These conflicts, surely, have been the first ones since WWII to be officially labeled as genocidal in character by Western part of the international community which, by the way, fueled these conflicts until their ends especially Germany and the USA. Nevertheless, the bloody destruction of ex-Yugoslavia created a higher interest in the phenomena of “clash of civilization” promoted by Samuel P. Huntington[xiii] as it was advocated an idea that the Yugoslavs have been “at the ‘fault line’ of three civilizations – the Serb, Croatian, and Bosnian Muslim”,[xiv] i.e., the Eastern Christianity, the Roman Catholicism, and Oriental Islam. Finally, the case of ex-Yugoslavia confirmed the idea that fault lines between clashing civilizations are, in fact, the battle lines of the new post-Cold War New Order.

 

Dr. Vladislav B. Sotirović

www.global-politics.eu/sotirovic

sotirovic@global-politics.eu

© Vladislav B. Sotirovic 2019

 

Endnotes:

[i] Jeffrey Haynes et al., World Politics, New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, 2011, 587.

[ii] Susan L. Woodward, Balkan Tragedy: Chaos and Dissolution after the Cold War, Washington, D. C.: The Brooking Institution, 1995, 228.

[iii] According to the Serbian claims, there were already up to 40,000 Serbian refugees from Croatia in Serbia before Croatia’s declaration of independence on June 25th, 1991.

[iv] Вељко Ђурић Машина (уредник), Република Српска Крајина десет година послије, Београд: Добра воља, 2005, 21.

[v] About this issue, see in [Vladislav B. Sotirović, “Emigration, Refugees and Ethnic Cleansing in Yugoslavia 1991–2001 in the Context of Transforming Ethnographical Borders into National-State Borders”, Dalia Kuizinienė (ed.), Beginnings and Ends of Emigration: Life without Borders in Contemporary World, A collection of scholarly essays, Kaunas: Versus Aureus, 2005, 85–108].

[vi] Richard W. Mansbach, Kirsten L. Taylor, Introduction to Global Politics, Second Edition, London−New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, 2012, 443.

[vii] Richard Frucht (ed.), Encyclopedia of Eastern Europe from the Congress of Vienna to the Fall of Communism, New York‒London: Garland Publishing, Inc., 2000, 871.

[viii] Aleksandar Pavković, “National Liberations in Former Yugoslavia: When Will They End?”, East European Quarterly, XXXVI, № 2, 2002, 241.

[ix] Branka Magaš, Ivo Žanić (eds.), The War in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina 1991‒1995, London‒Portland, OR: Frank Cass, 2001, 361.

[x] Jelena Guskova, Istorija jugoslovenske krize 1990−2000, I, Beograd: IGAM, 2003, 368−370.

[xi] Andrew Heywood, Global Politics, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011, 178.

[xii] Branka Magaš, Ivo Žanić (eds.), The War in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina 1991‒1995, London‒Portland, OR: Frank Cass, 2001, 376.

[xiii] Harvard University’s political scientist Samuel P. Huntington published in 1993 an article in the journal Foreign Affairs entitled “The Clash of Civilizations?” See also [Samuel P. Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations: Remaking of World Order, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996].

[xiv] Richard W. Mansbach, Kirsten L. Taylor, Introduction to Global Politics, Second Edition, London−New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, 2012, 445.

Origins of images: Facebook, Twitter, Wikimedia, Wikipedia, Flickr, Google, Imageinjection & Pinterest.

Read our Disclaimer/Legal Statement!

Donate to Support Us

We would like to ask you to consider a small donation to help our team keep working. We accept no advertising and rely only on you, our readers, to keep us digging the truth on history, global politics and international relations.

 
READ MORE!
Crucified Kosovo With Photo Albums
After Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kosovo is a second ISIS in Europe today. From June 1999, when NATO troops occupied Kosovo and brought to power militant Muslim Albanian Jihad fighters, systematic destruction of (Serbian Orthodox) Christianity is visible on every corner. The most disappointed fact in post-war Kosovo reality is an ethnic and cultural cleansing of all non-Albanians and not-Albanian cultural heritage. The proofs are evident and visible on every corner of Kosovo territory. For instance, on the arrival of KFOR (international but in fact NATO „Kosovo Forces“) and UNMIK („United Nations Mission in Kosovo“) to Kosovo in 1999, all the names of the ...
READ MORE
Kosovo: What Everyone (Really) Needs to Know
Preface Kosovo is today one of the most disputed territories in Europe and a real Balkan powder keg which can explode again at any time. It is a province within the Republic of Serbia, recognized as such by both Serbia’s constitution and the Resolution 1244 by the Security Council of the United Nations (the UNSC Resolution 1244, June 10th, 1999). However, Kosovo parliament with a clear Albanian majority proclaimed the independence of Kosovo (without a referendum) in February 2008 that was recognized by the majority of the Western countries followed by their puppet clients all over the world (in reality, today ...
READ MORE
An Idea of the Yugoslav Unification (1)
Introduction Yugoslavia as a state was officially created hundred years ago on December 1st, 1918 as the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (renamed on January 6th, 1929 to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia). The country emerged legally from the Corfu Pact of 1917 (signed agreement between Serbia’s government and the South-Slavic representatives from the Habsburg Monarchy) and was the extremely heterogeneous state from ethnic, geographic, historical, confessional and linguistic points of view. Yugoslavia’s religious and ethnic diversity was expressed in two mutually opposite national-political ideas about the nature and future of the new state. It is true that Slovenia and Croatia had ...
READ MORE
Trump, Empire and Our Long Retreat to Tyranny
There has been a lot of worry about the Constitution and basic democratic rights since Trump’s election. And worry we should. But, Trump did not fall from the sky, he is a product of our history. Over the long course of human history, there has been nothing more hostile to democracies and constitutional republics than empire. Empires destroys republics from the inside out.[1] And, empires demand and create enemies. In the opening act of our empire we fought our race enemy: the natives we tried to assimilate or eliminate. In the climactic scene of empire building after WWII we fought another “red ...
READ MORE
Clinton: Destroy Syria for Israel
A newly-released Hilary Clinton email confirmed that the Obama administration has deliberately provoked the civil war in Syria as the “best way to help Israel.” In an indication of her murderous and psychopathic nature, Clinton also wrote that it was the “right thing” to personally threaten Bashar Assad’s family with death. In the email, released by Wikileaks, then Secretary of State Clinton says that the “best way to help Israel” is to “use force” in Syria to overthrow the government. The document was one of many unclassified by the US Department of State under case number F-2014-20439, Doc No. C05794498, following the uproar ...
READ MORE
Nekrologas Makeinui
Mirė vienas didžiausių pasaulyje tarptautinių karo nusikaltėlių JAV senatorius Džonas Makeinas. Jis , kaip ir kitas JAV karo nusikaltėlių gaujos sėbras Zbignevas Bzežinskis, darė karo nusikaltimus visame pasaulyje, žudė civilius gyventojus, moteris, vaikus, senelius Vietname, Irake, Jugoslavijoje, Libijoje, Sirijoje, Jemene, Somalyje, Nigerijoje, Gruzijoje, Ukrainoje, kišosi į visų pasaulio šalių vidaus reikalus, dalyvavo vykdant spalvotas revoliucijas visose Rusijos pasienyje esančiose buvusiose tarybinėse valstybėse, Vidurio ir Rytų Europoje, Pabaltijo respublikose, Šiaurės Afrikoje, Artimuosiuose ir Vidurio Rytuose, rėmė nusikalstamus fašistinius režimus, nacionalistines chuntas, islamo teroristines organizacijas minėtose šalyse, yra tiesiogiai atsakingas už jo remtų partijų – konservatorių, liberalų, socdemų, nacistų, nacionalistų, fašistų, islamo teroristų ...
READ MORE
Myths and Facts аbout the 1967 Six Day War
June 5 marks the 50th anniversary of Israel’s Six-Day War of conquest. Any objective examination of that war, and the events leading to and following it, make clear that the dominant narrative in the United States is reality turned upside down. It is “fake news” that is perpetrated on the public by the corporate media continually, right up to the present day.The Six Day War began on June 5, 1967. Israel launched the war against Egypt, Syria and Jordan with what could correctly called a “sneak attack,” although it is never referred to that way here. In the vocabulary of ...
READ MORE
Terrorist al-Nusra Front is blamed for massacre and abduction of Syrian civilians.
A Black Agenda Radio commentary by executive editor Glen Ford “For Russia, the war in Afghanistan is a domestic issue, with a direct impact on the drug trade and terrorist attacks on Russian cities”. If the United States were not a superpower, it would be the joke of the planet, a nation whose government tells the most outrageous and ridiculous lies -- and may actually believe them -- and whose corporate media report those lies as gospel truth. The latest whopper comes from the mouth of James “Mad Dog” Mattis, the U.S. Secretary of Defense, who claims the Russians are providing weapons ...
READ MORE
Luring Trump into Mideast Wars
Donald Trump entered military terra incognita on Thursday by launching an illegal Tomahawk missile strike on an air base in eastern Syria. Beyond the clear violation of international law, the practical results are likely to be disastrous, drawing the U.S. deeper into the Syrian quagmire. But it would be a mistake to focus all the criticism on Trump. Not only are Democrats also at fault, but a good argument could be made that they bear even greater responsibility. For years, near-total unanimity has reigned on Capitol Hill concerning America’s latest villains du jour, Russia’s Vladimir Putin and Syria’s Bashar al-Assad. Congressmen, senators, ...
READ MORE
Accusing Russia: Listening to History
The prophet Cassandra’s curse was that when she told the future, no one listened; history’s curse is that when it tells the past, no one does. The West has no shortage of charges it hurls against Russia, but most of them can be grouped into one of three categories: that Russia intervened in the American elections, that Russia is dragging the world into a new cold war, and that Russia is becoming increasingly aggressive and expansionist. Sometimes when charges are brought against you, the best witness you can call to your defense is history. Election Intervention This history of Russia, America and political ...
READ MORE
Gavrilo Princip or Franz Ferdinand? Heroes or Villains?
In 1917, the Austro-Hungarian government erected a monument to Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife the Duchess Sophie in Sarajevo on the third year anniversary of the assassinations on June 28. It was called the Sühnedenkmal or Spomenik umorstva, The Atonement or Expiation Monument. The bronze statue was by Hungarian sculptor Eugen Bori. Photo left: 1918 Austro-Hungarian postcard featuring the monument to Franz Ferdinand and Duchess Sophie in Sarajevo date stamped August 25, 1918 by Kartenzentrale Jacob A. Cappon, Sarajevo, the same publisher of the Gavrilo Princip postcard published after the war. Sarajevo, Sühnedenkmal. Spomenik umorstva. 28 VI. 1914. Atonement or Expiation ...
READ MORE
Documentary Movies about Kosovo
What you can see here, as the example: Serbian shrine Bogorodica Ljeviška (Virgin Mary of Ljevishka) is a cathedral church in the city of Prizren in the western part of Kosovo & Metohija region. The city was a capital of medieval Serbia. This church is built by Serbian king Milutin between 1307-1309. This church belongs to one of four masterpieces of Serbian sacral architecture in the Middle Ages in Kosovo & Metohija that was a central part of Serbian medieval state. The video is in the Serbian language. Rachak Village in Kosovo 1999- Lies and the truth from Vladislav B. Sotirovic ...
READ MORE
President of the Alliance for the Future of Kosovo (AAK) Ramush Haradinaj, a Kosovo Albanian former guerilla commander who served briefly as prime minister, speaks during an interview with Reuters at the AAK headquarters in Pristina December 4, 2012. REUTERS/Hazir Reka
The Balkans has always been cursed by a recurring theme: that each entity within it can, at some point, become greater and more consuming in territory than the next neighbour. Each nation has, and in some instances continues, to nurse dreams of enlargement, pecking away at borders and assuming that few will notice.  Strategies of expansion tend to have one problem: they are hard to evaluate in the way of conventional agreement, contract or conspiracy. For decades, historians of various shades would attribute to Imperial Germany a conscious, global goal of conquest, mistaking the plans of contingent invasion with actual policy. In ...
READ MORE
Koszovó Csomója (1999)
A „rövid” XX. századot a balkáni lôporos hordó robbanása vezette be, és úgy látszik, addig nem is tud befejezôdni, amíg ezt a hordót jó mélyen és örökre el nem temetik. A koszovói konfliktus új fázisa – ha nem akarunk éppenséggel visszamenni az ôsidôkig, de legalábbis a rigómezei ütközetig (1389) vagy Arsenije Carnojevic és népe nagy elvándorlásáig (1698 – a tartomány szerb lakosága ekkor menekült el a török megtorlás elôl, és ekkor kezdôdött dél felôl az albánok tömeges betelepedése a lényegében lakatlanná vált területre) – nagyjából az elsô balkáni háborúval kezdôdött, és kisebb-nagyobb megszakításokkal tart ma is. A tartomány szerencsétlen helyen ...
READ MORE
Greater (Islamic) Albania: United States Project against the Orthodox World?
Wednesday, December 5, 2012, the Albanian Prime Minister Sali Berisha advocated granting Albanian citizenship to all Albanians, wherever they reside. This statement was made during a visit of the city of Vlora where the independence of the Albanian state was declared, only 100 years ago. At the time Albania had just liberated itself from Ottoman rule.This declaration follows a separate statement, collective this time, that Sali Berisha had made with his Kosovar counterpart Hashim Thaci a few weeks ago, promising the union of all Albanians. The place was, I must say, well chosen since the vast majority of the inhabitants ...
READ MORE
Croatia Must Not Whitewash the Horrors of Jasenovac
There are horrific realities of history that must not be questioned, distorted or denied by anyone with even the slightest integrity or sense of decency. The slaughter of millions of Jews in the death camps of Auschwitz-Birkenau, Treblinka, Majdanek, Belzec, Chelmno and Sobibor during the Holocaust of World War II falls squarely in this category. So does the fundamental fact that this ultimate crime against humanity was perpetrated by Nazi Germany and its multinational fascist accomplices. Any attempt to deny or to attempt to trivialise or minimise the enormity of this genocide, or to rehabilitate its perpetrators in any way whatsoever, is, simply ...
READ MORE
The US Aggression on Syria and the Principles of a “Just War”
The US military forces committed a classical example of the aggression on one sovereign and independent state on April 6th, 2017 by bombing a territory of Syrian Arab Republic by 59 Tomahawk cruise missiles killing civilians who are proclaimed as usually as “collateral damage”. A formal excuse for the aggression was based as many times before (from Vietnam, Kosovo, Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya… cases) on traditional political false flags and mainstream media fake news used by the US propaganda machinery to sanction the Pentagon’s hegemonic policy of the Pax Americana. The Fundamental Dilemma The fundamental dilemma is why the US administrations of Obama ...
READ MORE
Faith Attaguile, from Encinitas, yells chants with others on the corner of Broadway and Front Street , Wednesday, Nov. 9, 2016, in downtown San Diego, during a protest in opposition of Donald Trump's presidential election victory. (Hayne Palmour IV/The San Diego Union-Tribune via AP)
On April 7, two U.S. Navy battle ships USS Porter (DDG-78) and USS Ross launched 59 Tomahawk cruise missiles at al-Shayrat military airfield in Syria’s Homs province from the Eastern Mediterranean. The U.S. strikes particularly targeted the main landing strip, aircraft, radio locators, air defense system and fuel stations. The strike was approved by U.S. President Donald Trump, who said that the Syrian Air Force used affiliated al-Shayrat air base to prepare chemical attack on the city of Khan Shaykhun in Idlib.  “It is in this vital national security interest of the United States to prevent and deter the spread and ...
READ MORE
Europe’s “Little Guantanamo”: Why the U.S. Wants Serbia to Give Up Kosovo
The U.S. military base in Kosovo was constructed in 1999 without consulting with the government of Serbia and is the largest U.S. military base built outside of the U.S. since the Vietnam War. The site was apparently used for extraordinary renditions and has been referred to as a “little Guantanamo”. This is a very little known fact as NATO, the U.S., the European Union and the West are in the process of forcing Serbia to effectively give up Kosovo, and indicates the real motive for the West’s support of the Kosovo Liberation Army which it had deemed a terrorist organization ...
READ MORE
Enabling Genocide by the West: The Case of Bosnia-Herzegovina
Read our Disclaimer/Legal Statement!Donate to Support UsWe would like to ask you to consider a small donation to help our team keep working. We accept no advertising and rely only on you, our readers, to keep us digging the truth on history, global politics and international relations.SaveSave
READ MORE
Crucified Kosovo With Photo Albums
Kosovo: What Everyone (Really) Needs to Know
An Idea of the Yugoslav Unification (1)
Trump, Empire and Our Long Retreat to Tyranny
Clinton: Destroy Syria for Israel
Nekrologas Makeinui
Myths and Facts аbout the 1967 Six Day War
The U.S., Not Russia, Arms Jihadists Worldwide
Luring Trump into Mideast Wars
Accusing Russia: Listening to History
Gavrilo Princip or Franz Ferdinand? Heroes or Villains?
Documentary Movies about Kosovo
Greater Albania and the Balkans
Koszovó Csomója (1999)
Greater (Islamic) Albania: United States Project against the Orthodox World?
Croatia Must Not Whitewash the Horrors of Jasenovac
The US Aggression on Syria and the Principles of a “Just War”
Chemical Attack in Idlib – Duplication of Scenario in Eastern Ghouta
Europe’s “Little Guantanamo”: Why the U.S. Wants Serbia to Give Up Kosovo
Enabling Genocide by the West: The Case of Bosnia-Herzegovina
Global-Politics.eu

Written by Global-Politics.eu

SHORT LEGAL DISCLAIMER: The website’s owner & editor-in-chief has no official position on any issue published at this website. The views of the authors presented at this website do not necessarily coincide with the opinion of the owner & editor-in-chief of the website. The contents of all material (articles, books, photos, videos…) are of sole responsibility of the authors. The owner & editor-in-chief of this website is not morally, scientifically or legally responsible for any inaccurate or incorrect statement in the contents of all material found on this website. The owner & editor-in-chief of this website is not responsible for the content of external internet sites. No advertising, government or corporate funding for the functioning of this website. The owner & editor-in-chief and authors are not morally, scientifically or legally responsible for any inaccurate or incorrect statement in the text and material found on the website www.global-politics.eu

Website: http://www.global-politics.eu