The Balkan Vlachs (4)

Share

Hits: 946

The Vlachs in Romania 

The territory of Romania is considered by a significant number of the Balkan Vlachs as their real motherland (for the reason that it is the only state of the neo-Latin speakers in South-East Europe) or the national state of the Vlachs regardless on the fact that they are not originating from Romania. Outstandingly, the Romanian intellectuals (especially the linguists) and politicians expressed during the last century and a half a high level of attention to all neo-Latin speaking groups in South-East Europe claiming that all of them belong to the Romanian nationality. Accordingly, the leading theory about the ethnogenesis of Romanian (i.e., neo-Latin) speakers in the region is framed as it is presented in the next paragraph.

The Romanians are descendants from old Thracians who inhabited a vast part of the Central and South-East Europe in the pre-classical age (from Poland to Greece). A language of the ancient Thracians was of the same kind as the ancient Baltic, Slavic, Iranian and it was a part of the language group that is known for the linguists as satem. During the Roman period, the Thracians within South-East Europe lived on the territory of present-day Romania, Moldova, East Serbia and Bulgaria. The Greco-Roman geographers and historians named the Thracian tribes who lived between the Carpathian Mts., the Balkan Range and the Black Sea as the Dacians or Getae. These ancient Geto-Dacians, who had their settlements on both banks of Danube river, were the ethnic base for the formation of present-day neo-Latin speakers in this part of Europe who calls themselves as the Romanians or the Aromanians (the Vlachs). In any case, the Latinity became the main feature of the Romanian nationality and it resulted from the process of Romanization. As the language is the essential aspect to define an ethnic identity and since the old Latin language creates the core of a modern Romanian language it is understandable why the Romanians call themselves by this ethnonym. Finally, there is a long tradition that the Romanian people considered the ethnonyms Vlach and Romanian as the synonyms: for instance, the representatives of Transylvanian Romanians sent to the Habsburg emperor Leopold II (1790–1792) in March 1791 and in March 1792 the written requirements upon the political status of the Romanians in Transylvania under the title Supplex Libellus Valachorum.

A territory of present-day Romania had a great attraction for the Vlach migrants from the Balkans in the Middle and New Ages since the two semi-independent principalities of Romanian-speakers existed at that time: Wallachia and Moldavia. Both of them have been considered as the countries with flourishing economic activities and unwavering central authorities. One of the crucial national-political institutions that played a decisive role in the Vlach migration from the Balkan peninsula to the independent state of Romania (which was made by the unification of Wallachia and Moldavia in 1859 and became internationally recognized as an independent in 1878) was the “Macedo-Romanian Committee”. It was established in the early 1860s in Bucharest and financed by the Romanian government. The prime political goal of the committee was to work on the national renaissance of the “Romanian language speakers” for the unification with their “motherland”. The most remarkable success of the committee was opening about 100 Romanian schools within the Ottoman Empire and attraction of the Vlachs to migrate to Romania, particularly to the region of Dobruja. For instance, the Romanian authorities granted the privileges to all Vlachs from the Balkans in 1925 to come to the province of Dobruja where the Romanians composed lesser than a half of all inhabitants. However, the local population in this province, either of the Romanian origin or not, expressed a certain level of antagonism toward the new (Vlach) colonists that compelled many of them to migrate to other parts of Romania.

Today, Romania’s Vlachs make a community of some 50,000 to 70,000 people, but a majority of them accepted Romanian national identity although with a sense of having a distinctive vernacular in comparison with the literal Romanian language. The Romanians regard the Vlach language customarily as a (not standardized) dialect of Romanian. The Vlachs as a population are considered as a cultural minority of Romanian kinship. Romania’s Vlachs are in comparison to all other Vlach communities in the region most exposed to the assimilation due to the linguistic similarities with the members from a majority-community.

The Vlachs in Serbia

Within the whole territory of the former Yugoslavia, the Vlachs have been most numerous in Serbia. In the Cold War period, Yugoslavia’s Vlach enjoyed the highest level of minority protection in comparison to the other states in South-East Europe. Nevertheless, some of the Vlach representatives complained at the end of the existence of ex-Yugoslavia for the lack of the language and religious rights for this community especially in the Socialist Republic of Macedonia. Ex-Yugoslav authorities developed the so-called “three-tier system” of ethnonational rights according to which all ethnonational groups have been classified into three levels of the rights: a) the Nations of Yugoslavia (Slovenes, Croats, Serbs, Muslims, Montenegrins, and Macedonians); b) the Nationalities of Yugoslavia (Slovaks, Turks, Czechs, Italians, Romanians, Gypsies, Ruthenians, Hungarians, and Albanians); and c) the Ethnic groups of Yugoslavia (like Austrians, Greeks, Jews, Vlachs, Ukrainians, Russians, Poles, etc.). Officially, the minority status in the country was not recognized and all citizens of Yugoslavia had been equal in terms of culture, language and political rights. However, some de facto minority groups enjoyed the right to have a territorial and administrative autonomy (the Albanians and the Hungarians), while others did not.

The majority of Serbia’s Vlachs live in the easternmost part of the country around Timok river (the so-called “Timok Vlachs”).[1] According to some scholars, a majority of them have been resettled from the Principality of Wallachia, Transylvania, and Banat to this area (Тимочка крајина) by the Ottoman authorities in order to repopulate the region. The majority of inhabitants of the lands along Danube river of this portion of Serbia, which is on the border with Bulgaria and Romania, are the Vlachs: 151 settlements are purely Vlach; while in 42 settlements they mixed with the Serbs and the Bulgarians. The Romanian authorities claimed that in the interwar period there were approximately 120,000 “Romanians” (the Vlachs of a neo-Latin language) in the Bulgarian part of Timok valley, which separates Serbia from Bulgaria.[2]

According to official Serbia’s statistical data, at the end of the 20th century (the 1981 census) there were 135,000 speakers of the Vlach language, but only 32,000 of them declared themselves to be of the Vlach ethnicity. The rest of the Vlach speakers identified themselves as the Serbs.[3] The Serbian authorities called them as the Serbs of Vlach language. However, some researchers increase the number of Serbia’s Vlachs to 200,000. Many of Timok Vlachs, who came to the area from Banat, and Transylvania, called themselves, and are known by the local populace, as the Ungurens (i.e., the Hungarians) since they migrated from historical lands of the Kingdom of Hungary. However, those Vlachs who migrated from the Principality of Wallachia (which had an ancient name of Tara Romaneasca) are known as the Tarans. The latter are living as well in the Vidin area of North-West Bulgaria. During the Ottoman rule, the Vlachs from the Timok area (in Serbia) and the Vidin district (in Bulgaria) maintained intensive relations and were considered as a single compact group of the Vlachs.

An establishment of the new political borders in the area (firstly between Serbia and Turkey in 1830/1833 and later between Serbia and Bulgaria in 1878), which followed the process of liberation of the Serbs and the Bulgarians from the Ottoman mastery, separated the Timok Vlachs from those who lived in the vicinity of Vidin. Consequently, many of the Vidin Vlachs accepted either as first or second ethnic identity to be Bulgarians,[4] while a majority of the Timok Vlachs identified themselves as the Serbs (but of the Vlach language). It is very often that the Timok Vlachs would listen and perform Serbian folk songs and respect Serbian national customs and culture. Serbia’s Vlachs have been quite positively considered and highly rated by the Bulgarian Vlachs in the time of the Socialist Yugoslavia due to their economic prosperity, right to freely express their ethnic self-nomination and greater individual freedoms.

The census of 1981 showed that the Vlach ethnicity was not understood as a very deep identity, at least not enough rooted in order to survive on the political scene, but it is perceived as a strategic choice (for the practical reasons) of majority of the community, who opted to belong to another identity group (but preserving the mother tongue) in order to obtain more privileges and better position within the society.[5] From this example is clearly seen that for some Vlach micro-communities the ethnic group[6] and linguistic group can be differentiated from the each other. From the Vlach perspective, to be at the same time ethnic Serb (or Bulgarian as it is aforementioned) and linguistic Vlach does not affect the Vlach self-identity, but for sure it finally leads to the Vlach silent assimilation.[7]

The Vlachs participated in the process of ethnogenesis of the Serbs as certain percentage of the Vlachs who lived in the Middle Ages in the Kingdom (Empire from 1346 to 1371) of Serbia and later in the Ottoman times within the borders of jurisdiction of revived Serbian Patriarchate of Peć (1557–1766) became included in the process of Serbization of not originally Eastern Orthodox Serbs. Consequently, it is extremely difficult to define the balance of ethnic Serbs and those Vlachs who accepted Serb national feeling within the population of the Eastern Orthodox believers who emigrated from the Ottoman provinces of Montenegro, Serbia, Herzegovina, Macedonia and Bosnia and resettled themselves on the territory of the former Habsburg Monarchy and Venice (the present-day territory of the Republic of Croatia). In other words, the Venetian and Austrian provincial and central authorities very often mentioned in the sources and official documents these migrants as the Vlachs (in Austrian case) or the Morlacchi (by the Venetians). However, in the same sources, these Vlachs or Morlacchi are recognized to be of the Serb customs and language.[8]

A historical presence of the Vlach population on the territory of Serbia is preserved in the names of the rivers, villages, mountains, etc. For instance, at the end of the 19th century, there were 25 villages in Serbia with the name derived from the Vlach ethnonym. At the same period of time, the Vlachs were the biggest minorities in Serbia with 7,47% of the total Kingdom of Serbia’s inhabitants, living between Grand Morava, Danube, and Timok rivers. Majority of them originated from the migrants from the north of Danube.[9]

Conclusion

The status of the Vlach minority in South-East Europe is characterized with a shortage of authoritative resources, cultural, linguistic and political subordination to the ethnolinguistic majority environment, social, economic, and territorial (administrative) marginalization and, finally, with a long-standing process of tranquil assimilation especially by the Orthodox majority(s) due to the long-term cohabitation and familiarization.

Ferdinand Toennies, a primordial theoretician of phenomena of ethnicity, divides modern ethnonational groups, according to their self-identity criteria, into the community of blood, the community of place and the community of spirit.[10] However, the Vlach self-identity apprehension does not fit to these three patterns. The Vlach pattern of self-identity could be called as a community of language. For them, their language became the last stronghold of the ethnic spirit and a shield of their group self-identity. Therefore, the preservation of the Vlachs in the Balkans, as a separate ethnolinguistic minority in several regional states, primarily depends on a successful self-saving and maintenance of the Vlach language. However, the attempts to preserve the Vlach language and culture could not be fruitful without improved legal provisions and a real practical help by the governments of the Balkan states.

In this study, we considered the Vlach minority in cultural terms, i.e. as an ethnolinguistic minority group in different Balkan countries, rather than religious, or another one. The reasons for that are two-fold:

  • Firstly, the Vlachs are identifying themselves in cultural terms (primarily by the mother language as a vital minority cultural identity issue and crucial “distinct character”).
  • Secondly, they in recent times claim special collective cultural rights within the regional societies in order to preserve their collective cultural identity and authenticity as a specific way of life that is typical of their particular group, which separates the Vlachs from the others and forms its unique ethnic image.

However, the members of majority-ethnicities have an impression that the Vlach minority culture is insignificant. Nevertheless, the political changes in the region after 1989/1990 did away with the obstacles to free profess religion and to express the ethnic identity that would lead to slow down Vlach assimilation.

The process of modernization, especially its features of urbanization and industrialization, meant various forms of cultural, and even ethnic, assimilation of the Vlachs in South-East Europe. Assimilation of the Vlachs in many cases was done under the policy of suppression of their cultural identity. However, the opposite case might lead to self-segregation and even conflict with the majority of society. The future task of the regional administrations and communities is to find a proper policy to provide the best conditions under which the Vlach minority (and other minorities) would express its specific cultural features, but without antagonizing the other members of the society. The exercising cultural rights of minority communities have to be framed and respected within the set of general human rights.

As a final point, an intercultural dialogue is needed in order to overcome mutual suspicion and enable the joint participation in the power of representatives of the majority and the minorities. This will ensure a political protection of the interests of minorities, which would not confront them with the rest of the population. Thus, minority cultural rights will not antagonize but harmonize political and other interests.

 

Prof. Dr Vladislav B. Sotirović

www.global-politics.eu/sotirovic

sotirovic@global-politics.eu

© Vladislav B. Sotirović 2018

 

References:

[1] For instance, according to the 1981 census, in the district of the city of Bor there were 10,29% Vlachs.

[2] C. Noe, M. Popesco-Spineni, Les Roumains en Bulgarie, Craiova, Ramuri, 1939, pp. 86−88.

[3] Statistical Yearbook of Yugoslavia 1988, Belgrade, 1989, p. 442 (in Serbian); R. Petrović, Etnički mešoviti brakovi u Jugoslaviji, Beograd, 1985, pp. 32–36.

[4] There are Bulgarian scholars who found pieces of evidence that parts of the Timok and the Danubian Vlachs have an ethnic Bulgarian origin. They are champions of the theory of “double migration across the Danube”, i.e., that majority of the Danubian, Timok and Vidin Vlachs originate in ethnic Bulgarians who once upon a time migrated from Bulgaria to Wallachia in order to escape from the Ottoman lordship. However, one part of them later resettled in North Bulgaria and East Serbia while other part stayed in South Romania. Those Bulgaro-Vlachs, when resettled in North Bulgaria, brought with themselves corrupted the Romanian language. This theory is partially confirmed in the Vlach oral tradition from the area of Vidin.

[5] This is an example of applying the rational choice theory to ethnic identity and interethnic relations. The proponents of this direction of thinking stress that the individuals are trying always to choose the most optimal option from the corpus of available alternatives of ethnonational identity; i.e. they are choosing such alternative which may give them the highest gains and benefits. Accordingly, the ethnic (or national) group is only a coalition of individuals and a result of their rational way of thinking, which helps them to obtain as better as a position in economic and political competition [M. Banton, “The Actors’ Model of Ethnic Relations”, J. Hutchinson, A. Smith (eds.), Ethnicity, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996, pp. 98–104]. According to many authors, the notion of particular ethnicity is a product of social relations rather than a “natural” essence. At any case, the character of ethnicity is a “variable and never ending process, through which the actors identify and are identified by the others on the basis of the Us-Them dichotomies established on the basis of cultural features, which are presumed to have derived from common origins and which are distinct in social interactions” [P. Poutignat, J. Streiff-Fenart, Théories de l’ ethnicité, Paris: PUF, 1995, p. 154].

[6] In this article, we regarded an ethnic group as a part of an ethnie that is living either in a non-national state or in a non-national-language environment, but preserved its language, culture, customs and are aware of its ethnic self-identity.

[7] Still, the Vlachs identified themselves as different from their neighbors from the points of language, culture, tradition, customs, and origin.

[8] L. Wolff, “Disciplinary Administration and Anthropological Perspective in Venetian Dalmatia: Official Reflections on the Morlacci from the Peace of Passarowitz to the Grimani Reform”, D. Roksandić, N. Štefanec (eds.), Constructing Border Societies on the Triplex Confinium, Budapest: Central European University Budapest, History Dept., Working Paper Series 4, 2000, pp. 47–56.

[9] В. Карић, Србија. Опис земље, народа и државе, Београд, 1887, pp. 92–93.

[10] F. Toennies, “Community and Association”, Sotsiologicheski Problemi, № 4., p. 103.


Read our Disclaimer/Legal Statement!

Donate to Support Us

We would like to ask you to consider a small donation to help our team keep working. We accept no advertising and rely only on you, our readers, to keep us digging the truth on history, global politics and international relations.

[wpedon id=”4696″ align=”left”]

READ MORE!
How Many People have been Killed in US Wars?
How many people have been killed in the wars in Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria, Yemen and Somalia? On Nov. 18, a UN press briefing on the war in Yemen declared authoritatively that it had so far killed 5,700 people, including 830 women and children. But how precise are these figures, what are they based on, and what relation are they likely to bear to the true numbers of people killed?Throughout the U.S.-led war in Afghanistan, the media has cited UN updates comparing numbers of Afghans killed by “coalition forces” and the “Taliban.” Following the U.S. escalation of the war in 2009 and 2010, a report by McClatchy in ...
READ MORE
The Great Powers and Global Politics
TerminologyA meaning of the term Great Power(s) (GP) in global politics from the beginning of the 16th century onward refers to the most power and therefore top influential states within the system of the international relations (IR). In other words, the GP are those and only those states who are modelling global politics like Portugal, Spain, Sweden, France, the United Kingdom, united Germany, the USA, the USSR, Russia or China. During the time of the Cold War (1949−1989) there were superpowers[1] as the American and the Soviet administrations refered to their own countries and even a hyperpower state – the ...
READ MORE
The Croatian National Revival Movement (1830–1847) and the Serbs (I)
Top personalities of the Croatian Revival MovementPreface This text investigates the question of relations between the Croatian national revival movement and the Serbs from 1830 to 1847. Special investigation attention is put on the problem of how the language influenced ethnonational group identity among the Croats and Serbs in Dalmatia, Croatia and Slavonia (the so-called Triune Kingdom) during the period of the Croatian national revival movement that was officially and not only formally named as the Illyrian Movement. This investigation is an attempt to reconstruct the mainstream of the politics by the leaders of the movement and their outlines on how ...
READ MORE
A Chess Game in Global Politics
Origins of images: Facebook, Twitter, Wikimedia, Wikipedia, Flickr, Google, Imageinjection, Public Domain & Pinterest.Read our Disclaimer/Legal Statement!Donate to Support UsWe would like to ask you to consider a small donation to help our team keep working. We accept no advertising and rely only on you, our readers, to keep us digging the truth on history, global politics and international relations.[wpedon id="4696" align="left"]Save
READ MORE
Thank You, Edward S. Herman (1925-2017) – Tireless Champion of Peace
Edward S. Herman died on November 11, 2017, at the age of 92. Fortunately, it was a peaceful death for a supremely peaceful man. In all he did, Ed Herman was a tireless champion of peace.Ed Herman could be considered the godfather of antiwar media critique, both because of his own contributions and because of the many writers he encouraged to pursue that work. Thanks to his logical mind and sense of justice, he sharply grasped the crucial role and diverse techniques of media propaganda in promoting war. He immediately saw through lies, including those so insidious that few dare ...
READ MORE
How Turkey Destroyed or Disposed of Its Historical Archives and Documents
For several decades, the Turkish government and its propagandists have been announcing that the state documents, particularly the Ottoman archives, are fully open and available to any researcher from around the world.What Turkish officials and their supporters do not say is that many documents of the Ottoman archives have been removed, destroyed, sold, or otherwise disposed of. In addition, some of the most sensitive archives are still closed to outsiders.Last month, Turkish journalist Uzay Bulut wrote a revealing article, “Turkey Uncensored: A History of Censorship and Bans,” published on the Philos Project website, regarding the status of Turkish archives and ...
READ MORE
Israel is Militarily, Geostrategically and Culturally Tied to the US
During the early 1960s, apartheid South African diplomats were increasingly concerned their country’s plummeting reputation would affect relations with America. In one notorious incident, of March 1960, South African police shot dead 69 black protesters in Sharpeville, a township about 40 miles from Johannesburg.Such atrocities sparked protests against the racist regime on the streets of England, America’s great ally, which surely did not go unnoticed in Washington. Aware of the changing climate, South Africa’s dignitaries pleaded with their American counterparts for continued assistance. They need not have worried that the earth’s dominant power would desert them.As long as the United ...
READ MORE
Weapons of Mass Destruction
Origins of images: Facebook, Twitter, Wikimedia, Wikipedia, Flickr, Google, Imageinjection, Public Domain & Pinterest.Read our Disclaimer/Legal Statement!Donate to Support UsWe would like to ask you to consider a small donation to help our team keep working. We accept no advertising and rely only on you, our readers, to keep us digging the truth on history, global politics and international relations.[wpedon id="4696" align="left"]Save
READ MORE
Robert A. Dahl on Democracy
The American political theorist and Sterling Professor of Political Science at Yale University, Robert A. Dahl (1917−2014) left in his immense scientific writing opus considerable remarks on democracy. Here, I would like to summarize his theoretical approaches to democracy.Historical development of democracyAccording to him, democracy was created there, where existed the best conditions for its development. R. A. Dahl assumes, that this happened already in the time when people lived in a system of tribal bonds. He thinks, that democracy was the standard and universal form of the government in prehistoric society. Later, democracy was replaced by other political systems and ...
READ MORE
Democracy in America is Pure Fantasy
“I’ll never live to see 9/11 justice,” says Stephen Lendman. The 9/11 attacks have changed the course of humanity, even so for sixteen years have not been minimally clarified but turned the world in a place full of fear and hate as the United States spreads its military bases all over the world, having 737 and more than 2,500,000 U.S. personnel serving across the planet.Stephen Lendman, one of the world’s most respected analysts, speaks with Pravda Report on the consequences of those attacks, and President Trump’s denial of his promises during the presidential campaign to investigate the day that has killed more than one million people ...
READ MORE
Building new mosques in Kosovo after the Kosovo War in 1998-1999
Today the Old (dying out) Continent is under multi-faced crises pressure some of them having older roots but the others are the product of current political decisions and moves by the European decision-makers (and those who are behind them across the Ocean).The European oldest and mostly painful crisis-problem is a biological declination of the whole continent what from the economic point of view means, at least for the western countries, an import of a huge number of the „outsiders“ in order just to keep the same level of the economic production and national GDP. This solution of course produces a ...
READ MORE
Final solution of Serbian Question in Jasenovac
The June 20 Gray Falcon commentary “Failure to Communicate” has this excerpt, that led me to an extremely anti-Russian and anti-Serb article, from a venue which has previously slanted in that direction:“The latest example of this ‘flipping the script’ is a New Republic feature comparing Putin to Milosevic. In reality, it is the West acting towards Russia the same way they acted towards the Serbs two decades ago. I’ve argued before that Putin is aware of this, though the Russian public and media in general may not be.”Whether the issue is the Caucasus or Ukraine, bombing Russia hasn’t been considered, unlike ...
READ MORE
Islam: Beheadings, Decapitation and Butchering
Kosovo after June 1999: Serbian Orthodox church destroyed by Kosovo Albanian MuslimsThe horrible pictures of the atrocious ritual beheadings of ICS, the Islamic Caliphate State, on the Internet, have shown an ugly face of Western leaders, avoiding and denying what is crystal clear, as if these heinous acts are not Islamic, and continuing their march of folly as if Islam is a religion of peace and compassion; as if ICS and Qaeda are in fact not Islamic; and as if these and other Islamic terrorist organization hijacked Islam, in order to smear it and de-legitimized its presence in the West.However, ...
READ MORE
Resolving the “Serbian Question” – One 19th-Century Project (I)
Introduction The article addresses a linguistically based project on Serbian ethnonational identity and a language-based political model for the creation of the Serbian united ethnonational state in the Balkans drafted by the most famous Serbian philologist Vuk Stefanović Karadžić in 1836 and further developed by Serbia’s statesman Ilija Garašanin in 1844. The most significant problem with respect to V. S. Karadžić’s “Срби сви и свуда“ (“Serbs All and Everywhere”) and I. Garašanin’s Начертаније (Outline) – two programmatic works in which the project of resolving the “Serbian Question” was developed in 1836/1844, is their interpretation and understanding of the historiographical traditions of ...
READ MORE
The Balkan Vlachs (2)
The Vlachs in Albania  Albania’s Vlach community is living in the southern part of the country, which has its historical name – North Epirus.[1] They are dispersed from the city of Gjirokastër in the south to the city of Elbasan in Central Albania. However, the largest Vlach concentration is in the areas of the cities of Gjirokastër, Korçë, and Përmet in the southernmost part of Albania where they live together with the Orthodox Greeks, Albanians and Macedonians.[2] The number of Albanian Vlachs is estimated from 35,000 to 100,000, but some researchers raise this figure to almost 200,000 (that is around 1–2,5% ...
READ MORE
Confession of a CIA Agent: They Gave Us Millions to Dismember Yugoslavia
We bribed parties and politicians who have enticed hate between the nations. Our ultimate goal was to enslave you! WebTribune publishes their interview with former CIA agent Robert Baer during his promotion tour in Quebec for upcoming book “Secrets of the White House” last week. My boss, who was formerly a US Senator, stressed repeatedly that some kind of scam would go down in Bosnia. A month before the alleged genocide in Srebrenica, he told me that the town would be headline news around the world and ordered us to call the media. Robert Baer, a former CIA officer, has authored many books ...
READ MORE
From Cyprus to Syria: Turkey’s Continued Invasions
On January 20, the Turkish military began an invasion of the Kurdish-controlled Afrin region in northern Syria. Turkey’s government has declared that its operation aims “to preserve Syria’s territorial integrity,” remove “terrorist elements,” and protect civilians.The Independent, however, published the first Western media report from Afrin, and Robert Fisk reports that the list of dead includes infants. “One-year old Wael al-Hussein, a refugee…was killed on 21 January, six-year old Moussab al-Hussein from Idlib (clearly from another refugee family) on the same day,” he writes.Many journalists in Turkey, in the meanwhile, are rubbing their hands. Necati Doğru, a columnist with one ...
READ MORE
NATO’s 1999 “Humanitarian Bombing” of Yugoslavia: Month Two
March 2018  marks the 19th anniversary of  NATO’s bombing of Yugoslavia.For over a month Canada has been bombing Yugoslavia. Without a parliamentary resolution, without a declaration of war and without a shred of legality Canadian war planes are attacking the nation that stood at the forefront of the fight against both Hitler’s Nazis and Mussolini’s fascists during World War II.The Nuremberg trial ruled that “to initiate a war of aggression… is not only an international crime, it is the supreme international crime.” Yet this is precisely what Canada and its NATO allies have done.The Canadian government said it was bombing ...
READ MORE
Balkan ‘Genocides’ are not to be Questioned
Genocide accusations are, it would seem, the latest fashion spreading out of the Balkans. On December 5, a former minister in the “government” of NATO occupied and administered Kosovo, Ivan Todosijević, who happens to be an otherwise occupation friendly and cooperative ethnic Serb, was sentenced to a two-year prison term. The court found him guilty of making what it considered the outrageous claim that the so-called genocidal “Račak massacre,” which in 1999 triggered NATO aggression against Yugoslavia, was an imposture. Since the trial began just two days before, by Balkan standards the swiftly reached verdict was remarkably expeditious, suggesting the ...
READ MORE
Netanyahu, Palestine and Ethnic Cleansing
Well, once again, Israeli Prime Murderer Benjamin Netanyahu astounds. One would think that there must be some limit to the bizarre statements that issue from his mouth, but no, we learn again and again that he is willing to push the bizarreness envelope to places where, like the crew of Star Trek’s Enterprise, no one has ever before ventured.His latest flight of fancy even seems to have astonished his worshipful U.S. government, which characterized his statements as ‘inappropriate and unhelpful’, harsh criticism indeed from that bastion of Israeli love. And what is it that Mr. Netanyahu has said? This writer ...
READ MORE
How Many People have been Killed in US Wars?
The Great Powers and Global Politics
The Croatian National Revival Movement (1830–1847) and the Serbs (I)
A Chess Game in Global Politics
Thank You, Edward S. Herman (1925-2017) – Tireless Champion of Peace
How Turkey Destroyed or Disposed of Its Historical Archives and Documents
Israel is Militarily, Geostrategically and Culturally Tied to the US
Weapons of Mass Destruction
Robert A. Dahl on Democracy
Democracy in America is Pure Fantasy
Europe Between Kosovization and Jihadization
Twisted History Against Russia and Serbia
Islam: Beheadings, Decapitation and Butchering
Resolving the “Serbian Question” – One 19th-Century Project (I)
The Balkan Vlachs (2)
Confession of a CIA Agent: They Gave Us Millions to Dismember Yugoslavia
From Cyprus to Syria: Turkey’s Continued Invasions
NATO’s 1999 “Humanitarian Bombing” of Yugoslavia: Month Two
Balkan ‘Genocides’ are not to be Questioned
Netanyahu, Palestine and Ethnic Cleansing
FOLLOW US ON OUR SOCIAL PLATFORMS
Share