Race, Racialism, and Politics

Hits: 327

Preface

It is a very linguistic fact that the term “race” exists in all languages derived from the Latin one. For instance, the meaning of this term is identical in English and French like in some other languages or very similar regarding the meaning. However, the term “race”, basically, refers in all of those Latin derived languages to a group of people who are sharing a common origin. Nevertheless, therefore, the term is not clearly distinguishable from very similar terms of “ethnicity” or “nationality”.[1]

Before 1945

Historically, it was not up to the mid-19th century that any account of race became to a certain extent generally accepted in Europe and later across the world mainly due to the development of biological theories that reached their peak in the book by Charles Darwin: Origin of Species (1859).[2] Both French Comte de Gobineau and British Ronald Knox argued in their works that races of human beings have been of crucial difference. Basically, they suggested that people of different races are going to be understood and more important treated in different ways. For instance, French Gobineau argued that Aryans have been attached to spirituality and freedom, while the black races have been unintelligent in comparison to the Aryans (mostly Europeans). At the same time, he argued the Asian Yellow races were unimaginative and materialistic.[3] Races, in this sense, occur in many species. They consist of any group with common genetic characteristics. 

However, ideologically, the concept of race used in such West European way, creates the possibility of both racialism and racism, which can be, in essence, differentiated.

Racialism is, in general, the ideological doctrine that stresses that racial categories are important in determining human behavior. Racism can be defined as the intention to identify himself/herself racially and to show at the same time hostility or at least lack of moral respect for members of other racial groups.    

As a matter of fact, the history of the nature of man established the position of a common origin of species and, therefore, biology did not discover any evidence for the morally significant genetic differences between races which have been claimed to exist by the 19th-century racialist theories.[4] Subsequently, alleged genetic differences between the racial groups are, in fact, a product of social construction rather than of biology. Nevertheless, such differences as exist are basically superficial and cannot be reasonably taken into account in order to justify the different moral treatment of people on racial grounds. What geneticists would say is that all humans are most probably descended from the same human origin who lived in Africa around 200.000 years ago and that the different peoples were not lived and bred so separately as it is suggested by all racialist and racist theories.[5]   

Many textbooks in the West-European culture divided Europeans into “Alpine”, “Nordic”, “Slavic”, or “Mediterranean” racial types. In the UK, for instance, exists a racial difference between “Anglo-Saxons” and “Celts” (in fact, between Englishmen and Scottish/Irish). The use of such terms is, however, an extreme example of the mythology which is, in fact, accentuating racial terminology.

In West Europe and the USA, since the mid-19th century, much of the politics of race became a direct product of ideological racialism but the situation became very paradoxical one as at the same time in West Europe existed strong requirements for the democratization of political life and in the USA existed influential political movement fighting for the abolition of slavery and against racial discrimination.[6] It was a historical time when the West Europeans were running for their overseas colonial empires while the Americans issued a manifesto by which claimed to dominate over both continents of the Americas.[7] A justification was required to treat (West) Europeans as equal, but non-(West)Europeans as racially inferior to them. For instance, in British India, after the local rebellion against the British colonial authorities in 1857, a British Empire was declared based on an extreme separation between the “Whites” and the “Natives”. The same scale of segregation was introduced in the southern states of the US and racialist theory was (mis)used to formally justify the position of the “Red skins” Indians in comparison to the white inhabitants, which finally fostered a genocide in some extreme cases.

In all of those West European overseas colonies like in Africa, there was an extremely shared assumption that the local “natives” have been racially inferior compared to the white European colonists. Belgium Congo, for instance, was probably the most extreme case of West European shame in this sense.[8] However, the climax of West European racism happened during the existence of the Nazi German Third Reich which was politically and economically supported by the Western democracies of the UK, France, and the USA. The Nazi German regime accepted in full the West European ideological framework of anti-Semitism that was developed by such writers as, for instance, the British Houston Stewart Chamberlain (1855−1927), which became the accepted policy of Hitler’s Germany[9] which understood the very existence of the Jewish race as a direct threat to German identity and prosperity. The anti-Semitic policy of Nazi Germany, based on racial discrimination, culminated during WWII in the extermination of the European Jews as a “Final Solution” to the “Jewish Question”.[10]     

After 1945 

After WWII and the collapse of the German Nazi Third Reich ideologically founded on the racial evaluation and discrimination, racialism as academic discipline lost its scientific and moral respectability in international intellectual elites. Therefore, it can be said the racialism as academic discipline existed for one century since the mid-18th century up to the mid-19th century. Nevertheless, racism as a practical implementation of the racialist theories remained extremely alive (as in the USA, for instance, at least up to 1970s) regardless of the very fact that such practice lost its coherent theoretical foundations or even categories and racism became a synonym for ethnic chauvinism and/or nationalism in many cases.[11]

The politics of race after WWII is the politics of post-racialist racist institutions. Globally speaking, the most notable anti-racist post-WWII policy is visible in the example of South Africa (former British colony) run by the local native Black population against the institution of apartheid – a policy of total segregation on the racial (black-white) relations in all public spheres of life. However, apartheid practice was officially justified in purely cultural terms, but in practice, it operated on clear racial criteria which, for instance, prohibited interracial marriage (like in Nazi Germany). The apartheid system of racial discrimination existed in South Africa despite the opposition of a vast majority of the country’s inhabitants (the blacks) followed by the majority of the international community member states.

Nevertheless, in many respects, the position of the states in the Deep South in the USA was a replica of the South African case of apartheid till the 1970s when the Civil Rights program was started to be implemented what meant a formal dismantling of the Southern segregation but in practice, it left alive in many places and forms. From the beginning of the 1980s, in the USA the politics of race was focused on the so-called “positive” moves for the sake to create social, political, and economic equality primarily for the black (Afro-American) population (mixed schools, quota system, the proclamation of equal political and legal rights and so).

In West Europe, many states introduced post-imperial politics of race in order to deal with the influx of immigrants from their ex-colonies and other states from Asia and Africa primarily but Latin America as well (Brazilians to Portugal). Only by the mid-1970, these groups of immigrants including and economic guest workers from other parts of Europe amounted averagely up to 5% in West European countries but the tendency was rising in all cases and, therefore, today, for instance, there are at least 5% of Arabs in France or 12% foreign workers in Germany out of the total population. However, their rapidly growing number from year to year created racist attitudes among huge sections of domestic “white” population followed, as a response, anti-racist campaigns by the immigrants and liberal allies.

Final remarks

As a matter of conclusion, racism has shown its ability to survive and to change its faces in politics[12] across the globe long after the formal and legal demise of racialism as both a serious intellectual standpoint and academic discipline.   

Observing growing racist tendencies that affect most of European societies and states, it can be said that European unification, in so far as it exists today in a form of the EU, and the growth of racism and anti-immigration sentiments are clearly distinct phenomena. Therefore, it would be artificial and fruitless to connect them too directly. Finally, just to remind ourselves about elementary forms of racism and xenophobia as they are: harassment, stereotypes, discrimination, and/or political racism.    

 

Dr. Vladislav B. Sotirović

www.global-politics.eu/sotirovic

sotirovic@global-politics.eu

© Vladislav B. Sotirović 2020

             

Endnotes:

[1] See, for instance, [Montserrat Guibernau, John Rex (eds.), The Ethnicity Reader: Nationalism, Multiculturalism and Migration, Malden, MA: Polity Press, 1997].

[2] Charles Darwin (1809−1882) derived the theory of the evolution of the animals and plants by natural selection. Ideological Darwinism is understood both as a general doctrine about human beings and nature and as well as a specific theory of biological evolution. The theory suggests a universal law applied to all animate phenomena. Darwinism, basically, was suggesting one natural law of development for all forms of life – human or animal, no matter. Ch. Darwin himself took a standpoint that man and other animals have been netted together. However, many Darwinists held that there were no longer foundations for elevating one species above another using certain criteria. As a kind of biological theory, Darwinism shifted the biologist’s concern from a concentration on specific types to a concentration on populations whose boundaries have been neither fixed nor predetermined. In fact, the population is evolved by natural selection of favorable, heritable variants. From a racial point of view, since 1880 exists the term “Social Darwinism” – used as a pejorative tag in order to mean the belief, based on (mis)reading of Charles Darwin, that natural selection entails the elimination of weak social, national and other groups, by stronger ones (like among the animals). About Social Darwinism, see more in [Garrett Wallace Brown, Ian McLean, Alistair McMillan (eds.), The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations, Fourth Edition, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2018, 511−512].  

[3] Ernest Seillière (ed.), Le Comte de Gobineau Et l’Aryanisme Historique, Forgotten Books, 2017. It has to be stressed that Gobineau was an opponent of slavery and a person who rejected anti-Semitism. Joseph Arthur Comte de Gobineau (1816−1882) was a French diplomat and scholar. He was the intellectual founder of racism. His most famous book, Essay on the Inequality of Human Races (1853−1855), put forward the thesis that different human races are innately unequal and that the White Aryan race is not only the purest but as well as superior in comparison to all other races in the world. In fact, his theory and writings had a great impact on the Nazi German ideology during the interwar period and justification of Nazi German policy of anti-Semitism (in fact, anti-Judaism) during WWII including holocaust practices.

[4] About the racist culture, see in [David Theo Goldberg, Racist Culture: Philosophy and the Politics of Meaning, Blackwell, 1993].

[5] In some cases, like in the USA, the policy of positive discrimination based on the racial background and origin is very much criticized as such system negates the principles of both equality and merit, and even further, that it permits whole sections of society to avoid real competition, which in turn is fostering racial prejudices. In the USA, however, positive discrimination is an institutionalized way to enable those historically disadvantaged by a political system in order to participate in the public and political life of the country in the general or local community in particular. Nevertheless, positive discrimination implies applying different criteria for selection to representatives of different groups (for instance, quota system, etc.) as a way of addressing the existing social inequalities or in a broader sense, political problems which are in many cases based on the racial background and discrimination. About the policy of positive discrimination, see more in [Stella Carm Abduch, Positive Discrimination: A Comparative Perspective Between the United States, Brazil and France, Master Degree Thesis, Toulouse University, 2011].   

[6] See in more detail in [Bernard Mandel, Labor, Free and Slave: Workingmen and the Anti-Slavery Movement in the United States, Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2007; Enid Lane, The Basic Arguments of the Anti-Slavery Movement in America, Rekindled Media, 2013].

[7] That was (in)famous the 1823 Monroe Doctrine or the US foreign policy declaration by which Washington warned West European Great Powers against further colonization in the Americas and at the same time against intervention in the areas of the American hemisphere. The declaration as well as disclaimed any intention of the USA to interfere with the political affairs of Europe. The background of the doctrine was, in fact, annual speech by the POTUS James Monroe’s to Congress in 1923 about the threat of intervention by the post-Napoleonic Holy Alliance of the European Great Powers in order to restore Spain’s South American colonies and the colonial policy of Russia in Alaska. The proclaimed doctrine of “America to Americans” became soon developed into a foreign policy in which the USA treated itself as only responsible for the security in the Americas from Alaska to Patagonia. Such policy consistently up today is complicated US relations with all Latin American countries and their Governments. About the Monroe Doctrine, see in [Jay Sexton, The Monroe Doctrine: Empire and Nation in Nineteenth Century America, Hill and Wang, 2012]. James Monroe (1758−1831) was a US Democratic-Republican statesman and the 5th POTUS from 1817 to 1825. He is remembered for two reasons: 1) in 1803 as minister to France under POTUS Jefferson he negotiated and ratified the so-called Louisiana Purchase, by which vast territory formerly in French possession was sold to the USA, and 2) as the originator of the Monroe Doctrine in 1823. About James Monroe’s life, see in [Tim McGrath, James Monroe: A Life, New York: Dutton, 2020].    

[8] About history of Belgian Congo, see in [Alan Isaacs et al (eds.), A Dictionary of World History, Oxford−New York: Oxford University Press, 2000, 146−147].

[9] Houston Stewart Chamberlain, The Aryan World-View, Munich: F. Bruckmann A. G., 1938.

[10] See, for instance [Arūnas Bubnys, Vilnius Ghetto 1941−1943, Vilnius: Genocide and Resistance Research Centre of Lithuania, 2018].

[11] About nationalism, see in [John Hutchinson, Anthony D. Smith (eds.), Oxford Readers: Nationalism, Oxford−New York: Oxford University Press, 1994].

[12] See, for instance, [Martin Barker, The New Racism, London: Junction Books, 1981].


Originally published at OrientalReview.org website.

Origins of images: Facebook, Twitter, Wikimedia, Wikipedia, Flickr, Google, Imageinjection, Public Domain & Pinterest.

Read our Disclaimer/Legal Statement!

Donate to Support Us

We would like to ask you to consider a small donation to help our team keep working. We accept no advertising and rely only on you, our readers, to keep us digging the truth on history, global politics, and international relations.

[wpedon id=”4696″ align=”left”]

READ MORE!
The U.S. Government Backs Ukraine Nazi-Fascists
The Nation  published an outstanding article on March 9th, by James Carden, which described the remarkable extent to which the Obama government (and virtually all of the Washington Establishment) are supporting (financially and otherwise) fascists who want to destroy Russia.  One such example was a recent event in Washington. According to Carden: It featured the deputy speaker of Ukraine’s Parliament, Andriy Parubiy. According to the program bio, Parubiy served as the “commandant” of the Euromaidan (why did an ostensibly peaceful protest require a “commandant” anyway?) and, later, as secretary of Ukraine’s National Security and Defense Council. The bio provided to attendees might fairly be described as selective. ...
READ MORE
NATO’s Reign of Terror in Kosovo & the Destruction of Yugoslavia
The following text was written in the immediate wake of the 1999 NATO bombings of Yugoslavia and the invasion of Kosovo by NATO troops. It is now well established that the war on Yugoslavia was waged on a fabricated humanitarian pretext and that extensive war crimes were committed by NATO and the US. In retrospect, the war on Yugoslavia was a “dress rehearsal” for subsequent US-NATO sponsored humanitarian wars including Afghanistan (2001), Iraq (2003), Libya (2011), Syria (2011), Ukraine (2014). Who are the war criminals? In a bitter irony, the so-called International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) in The Hague is controlled ...
READ MORE
Monetary Imperialism
In theory, the global financial system is supposed to help every country gain. Mainstream teaching of international finance, trade and “foreign aid” (defined simply as any government credit) depicts an almost utopian system uplifting all countries, not stripping their assets and imposing austerity. The reality since World War I is that the United States has taken the lead in shaping the international financial system to promote gains for its own bankers, farm exporters, its oil and gas sector, and buyers of foreign resources – and most of all, to collect on debts owed to it.Each time this global system has ...
READ MORE
U.S. Infowar: Kosovars, Kosovo, Kosovans, Serbian Albanians, Croatian Serbs, Bosnians…
The U.S. government and U.S. media explained the mass murders of Kosovo Serbs, Roma, and other Kosovo minorities as “revenge murders”. They were “revenge attacks”. The expulsion of over 250,000 Kosovo Serbs, Roma, Gorani, and Jews was simply censored and deleted using the infowar technique of Emphasis. These infowar techniques have no basis in criminal law and violate fundamental values and tenets of morality and ethics. The U.S. rationale was spurious: Because Yugoslav police were defending themselves and Kosovo civilians against what the U.S. State Department itself declared were “terrorists”, the Albanian Muslim population of Kosovo had some sort of right ...
READ MORE
Entrevista Con El Dr. Rubén Ramírez Lezcano, Candidato Del Gobierno Paraguayo A Presidir La CAF
Peter M. Tase (PMT): Cuales son algunos proyectos de gran importancia para la región que usted ha facilitado durante vuestra trayectoria como representante de la CAF (Development Bank of Latin America)?Dr. Rubén Ramírez Lezcano (RRL): Conozco en profundidad a la organización desde distintas perspectivas habiendo sido Viceministro de Economía y Canciller Nacional del Paraguay y, luego, funcionario de la CAF (Development Bank of Latin America) por muchos años, en los cuales tuve la oportunidad de desempeñarme como Asesor del Presidente primero, posteriormente como Director – Representante de CAF en la oficina de Panamá, con responsabilidades para Centroamérica, El Caribe y México, y ...
READ MORE
Americans Pay Price for Criminal Wars From Mass Shootings at Home
America’s horrendous gun violence can be attributed to many factors, but there is one factor that is hardly talked about or explored in public discourse – the apparent link between mass shootings and the rampant culture of US militarism.Mass shootings in the US – involving four or more persons – occur on an almost daily basis. The most recent major atrocity was in Virginia Beach last month in which 12 people were killed. The shooter was reportedly a military veteran.Turns out that US military veterans are disproportionately responsible for violent gun deaths among American civilians. Investigative journalist David Swanson has ...
READ MORE
Ukraine: US-installed Fascist Tyranny in Europe’s Heartland
Ukraine matters. It’s territory is Europe’s largest after Russia’s. It borders seven countries in Europe’s heartland – Belarus, Hungary, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Russia. It shares a strategically important 1,500-long land and sea border with the Russian Federation. The country is resource rich. Zbigniew Brzezinski once said: “without Ukraine, Russia ceases to be an empire, but with Ukraine suborned and then subordinated, Russia automatically becomes an empire.” Separately, he said if Russia reunites with Ukraine, it’ll be a Eurasian powerhouse. If Ukraine allies with Western Europe, Moscow will be significantly weakened geopolitically. The Obama regime’s February 2014 coup d’etat replaced democratic governance in Kiev ...
READ MORE
The Dirty War on Syria: Washington Supports the Islamic State (ISIS)
“It is always difficult to play a double game: declaring a fight against terrorists and simultaneously trying to use some to place pieces on the Middle Eastern chess board to pursue their own interests … [but do the] so-called moderate bandits behead people moderately?” – Vladimir Putin (2015) Reports that US and British aircraft carrying arms to ISIS were shot down by Iraqi forces (Iraqi News 2015) were met with shock and denial in western countries. Yet few in the Middle East doubt that Washington is playing a ‘double game’ with its proxy armies in Syria. A Yemeni AnsarAllah leader says ...
READ MORE
What About Apologizing to Ukraine, Mrs. Nuland?
Yesterday’s leak of the flagrant telephone talk between the US Assistant Secretary of State Victoria Nuland and the US Ambassador to Ukraine Geoffrey R. Pyatt has already hit the international media headlines. In short, it turned out that the US officials were coordinating their actions on how to install a puppet government in Ukraine. In this flagrant telephone talk between the US Assistant Secretary of State Victoria Nuland and the US Ambassador to Ukraine Geoffrey R. Pyatt agreed to nominate Bat’kyvshchina Party leader Arseniy Yatseniuk as Deputy Prime Minister, to bench Udar Party leader Vitaly Klitschko off the game for a ...
READ MORE
Documentary Movie “Ukraine: The Masks of the Revolution” (2016, by Paul Moreira)
Last movie by famous French movie maker Paul Moreira on Canal+ (France) broadcasted 01/02/2016.Some French citizens are now shocked after discovering the truth about the Odessa massacre and the Euromaidan bloody coup in 2013/2014.Interview to Paul Moreira:http://www.humanite.fr/derriere-les-masques-de-la-revolution-ukrainienne-597568Preview screening on January, 20th 2016 at FIPA Biarritz 29th edition, selected out of competition in Reportages and Investigation – Panorama of Creation category.Without them, there would have been no Ukrainian revolution.In February 2014, paramilitary groups fought against the police in the streets of Kyev and ousted President Yanukovych. They settled a new government.According to the western media, they were the revolution heroes. They ...
READ MORE
The “Catalonian Question”
The Catalan identity and Catalonia Catalans are the people who live in the territories of Spain in the autonomous-historical region called Catalonia. Their significance for the Spanish inner politics can be understood as the best if we know that Catalonia (Catalunya) is being since 1975 the most politically and economically powerful autonomous self-governed region in the Kingdom of Spain – during the last 20 years, basically, a kind of “a state within the state”. As a matter of fact, Catalans are the most integrated ethnohistorical groups of Spain together with Basques.[1]What makes Catalans so interlinked could be understood if we know ...
READ MORE
The Syrian Crisis is Part of a War Waged on Russia by the West
It seems clear now that the West wants to defeat Russia in Syria at all costs. This latest protracted confrontation in the Middle East can be understood as a proxy war of the US and NATO against Putin’s resurgent Russia. But Syria is just one zone of engagement in a much wider war against Russia that has been taking place since Putin started to stand up to the West. The same confrontation also occurs in Ukraine and formerly in Georgia, where Russia successfully halted, albeit temporarily, the Western advance. This amounts to a new Cold War or an undeclared war ...
READ MORE
The Sabra & Shatila Massacre
On September 16, 1982, Christian Lebanese militiamen allied to Israel entered the Palestinian refugee camp of Shatila and the adjacent neighborhood of Sabra in Beirut under the watch of the Israeli army and began a slaughter that caused outrage around the world. Over the next day and a half, up to 3500 Palestinian and Lebanese civilians, mostly women, children, and the elderly, were murdered in one of the worst atrocities in modern Middle Eastern history. The New York Times recently published an op-ed containing new details of discussions held between Israeli and American officials before and during the massacre. They ...
READ MORE
Two Presidents: A Difference
Origins of images: Facebook, Twitter, Wikimedia, Wikipedia, Flickr, Google, Imageinjection & Pinterest. Read our Disclaimer/Legal Statement! Donate to Support Us We would like to ask you to consider a small donation to help our team keep working. We accept no advertising and rely only on you, our readers, to keep us digging the truth on history, global politics and international relations. [wpedon id="4696" align="left"]
READ MORE
The Destruction of Mosul: U.S. Crimes against Humanity in the Name of “Counterterrorism”
After 267 days, the end of the battle of Mosul was announced on July 10th. “Liberation” is a misleading notion, because the hostilities have not stopped, the human suffering has not stopped.There are still victims in the city every day on both sides.Many refugees have no home to go back to and are suffering from severe mental health problems, especially the children.No reason to celebrateWere inter alia destroyed: 9 of the 10 major hospitals. 76 of the 98 medical centres. 6 big bridges across the Tigris. three-quarters of Mosul’s roads, 400 educational institutions, including schools, universities and education centres. 11,000 ...
READ MORE
The Cold War is Over
Like most Englishmen, I grew up with a natural dislike of “abroad” and a belief in the inferiority of all foreign things. I think it took me five visits to France before I began to regret leaving that lovely country rather than to rejoice at my return to our safe and familiar island. It often strikes me as quite funny that I spent so much of my life as a foreign correspondent, a profession for which I am so unfitted. When I went to live in Moscow in 1990, I felt that I had somehow betrayed my native soil. (I was ...
READ MORE
Untold History of Lithuania: A Chicago Teacher Showed Her Grandfather was a Nazi Collaborator
Barring unexpected delays, Silvia Foti is months away from fulfilling an old promise that’s become her life’s work: to write a biography of her late grandfather, who is a national hero in his native Lithuania. Foti, a 60-year-old high school teacher from Chicago, made the pledge to her dying mother 18 years ago. She has spent a long time studying the life of her grandfather, Jonas Noreika, as well as acquiring the writing skills necessary for chronicling it and finding a publisher. But rather than celebrating Noreika’s legacy as her mother requested, the biography that Foti wrote confirms and amplifies the findings ...
READ MORE
If this Haitian was Superstitious Like the Clintons
“malè ou swete bèlmè, se manman ou li frape” – the evil you wish upon your mother-in-law strikes your mother, Haitian wisdomThe other day, I saw a video excerpt of an October 2012 speech in which Bill Clinton was telling an audience in New-York how his wife, Hillary, possesses the extraordinary psychic ability to speak regularly with the dead, in particular, with the spirit of former First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt.*Today, some U.S. citizens who are still stunned by the election of Donald Trump may be seeking extra insights to help answer many troubling questions. However, I doubt the dead are in any way equipped to help them understand what is  happening in the so-called “land of the free and home ...
READ MORE
The United States: Destroyer of Nations
After the Donald Trump administration’s decision to recognize the disputed city of Jerusalem as Israel’s capital and move the US embassy there from Tel Aviv, the national aspirations of the Palestinian people to live in their own state have been severely dashed by Washington’s move. Ever since the formation of the United States, it has been American policy to destroy aspirant nations like the internationally-recognized State of Palestine.The first nation destroyed by the United States was the Cherokee Nation, or Tsalagihi Ayeli, which, beginning in 1794, was slowly decimated by forced removals from territory in Georgia, the Carolinas, Tennessee, Alabama, ...
READ MORE
The U.S. Government Backs Ukraine Nazi-Fascists
NATO’s Reign of Terror in Kosovo & the Destruction of Yugoslavia
Monetary Imperialism
U.S. Infowar: Kosovars, Kosovo, Kosovans, Serbian Albanians, Croatian Serbs, Bosnians…
Entrevista Con El Dr. Rubén Ramírez Lezcano, Candidato Del Gobierno Paraguayo A Presidir La CAF
Europe in 2050: Projected Population Change
Americans Pay Price for Criminal Wars From Mass Shootings at Home
Ukraine: US-installed Fascist Tyranny in Europe’s Heartland
The Dirty War on Syria: Washington Supports the Islamic State (ISIS)
What About Apologizing to Ukraine, Mrs. Nuland?
Documentary Movie “Ukraine: The Masks of the Revolution” (2016, by Paul Moreira)
The “Catalonian Question”
The Syrian Crisis is Part of a War Waged on Russia by the West
The Sabra & Shatila Massacre
Two Presidents: A Difference
The Destruction of Mosul: U.S. Crimes against Humanity in the Name of “Counterterrorism”
The Cold War is Over
Untold History of Lithuania: A Chicago Teacher Showed Her Grandfather was a Nazi Collaborator
If this Haitian was Superstitious Like the Clintons
The United States: Destroyer of Nations

Written by Policraticus

SHORT LEGAL DISCLAIMER: The website’s owner & editor-in-chief has no official position on any issue published at this website. The views of the authors presented at this website do not necessarily coincide with the opinion of the owner & editor-in-chief of the website. The contents of all material (articles, books, photos, videos…) are of sole responsibility of the authors. The owner & editor-in-chief of this website is not morally, scientifically or legally responsible for any inaccurate or incorrect statement in the contents of all material found on this website. The owner & editor-in-chief of this website is not responsible for the content of external internet sites. No advertising, government or corporate funding for the functioning of this website. The owner & editor-in-chief and authors are not morally, scientifically or legally responsible for any inaccurate or incorrect statement in the text and material found on the website www.global-politics.eu

Website: http://www.global-politics.eu