Macedonization of Macedonia

Share

Hits: 186

As a matter of historical fact, a separate Macedonian ethnonational identity did not exist until the second half of the 19th century. This is partly due to the fact that Macedonia was ruled by Ottoman Empire for a longer period of time: from 1371 to 1912. It is known that Ottoman authorities did not recognize any kind of ethnonational or ethnolinguistic identities but rather only the confessional (millet-system). Therefore, the Christians of Macedonia were not differentiated between themselves on the ethnic bases. Furthermore, Macedonian territories were inhabited by different ethnic, linguistic and religious groups (Slavic- and Greek-speaking Christians, Turkish- and Albanian-speaking Muslims, Vlachs, Jews, and Gypsies). Ottoman authorities, however, divided the population of the empire into the groups based on religion (“millets”), rather than on language, ethnicity or nationality.[1] The majority of Slavs living in Macedonia in the mid-19th century had no strong ethnic or national consciousness. Most of them called themselves just as Christians, essentially meaning to be non-Muslim but nothing more. However, some of them would accept a Greek identity, others Serbian or Bulgarian but very rare Macedonian.[2]

During the first half of the 19th century, no clear distinction could be made between Bulgarian and Macedonian intelligentsia as the majority of Slavic writers of that period were united in their opposition to Greek religious and cultural supremacy. The fact was that Greeks had the hegemony over Orthodox Christian millet in the Balkan provinces of Ottoman Empire as there was only recognized a Greek Orthodox church. However, in the first half of the 19th century firstly Serbian autonomous Orthodox church was recognized as separate from Greek and later in 1870, an independent Bulgarian Exarchate became established by Ottoman sultan.[3] Subsequently, the year of 1870 became a breaking-point in regard to the struggle for Macedonia between Bulgaria and Greece to be accompanied by Serbia after the Berlin Congress in 1878.

From the 1870s Bulgaria’s elites and Macedonia’s intellectuals started gradually more and more to grow apart and, as a result, a separate Macedonian identity started to be formed very much based on Bulgarian policy of promoting Macedonian regional identity as a separate from Greek ethnonational one. This differentiation took a technical form in a slightly different standardization of their linguistic medium as Macedonians insisted to use a separate book language from standardized Bulgarian one and, therefore, started to publish books in their own linguistic medium. Оn the political field, Sofia after 1878 strove to develop regional Macedonian revolutionary organizations for the liberation from Ottoman administration with the final aim to annex whole Macedonia according to the example of East Rumelia in 1885. Therefore, the first “committees” for the liberation of Macedonia were established in Sofia in the 1880s. Their functions included educational, religious and military activities and were concentrated on a political agitation on both the local and European levels. In 1893 the revolutionary organization for the liberation of Macedonia and Adrianople’s region was established in Thessaloniki under the official and full name – Internal Macedonian-Adrianopolitan Revolutionary Organisation, (IMARO). The 1905 IMARO’s Constitution was clearly written in the Bulgarian language. The organization had an aggressive and even violent agenda of national agitation and organized an anti-Ottoman rebellion in Krushevo for the liberation of Macedonia on August 2nd, 1903 (Ilinden Uprising)[4] when a formal Macedonian independence was declared in a form of proclaimed “Republic of Krushevo” which existed for ten days. Nevertheless, IMARO was, in practice, creating a strong Macedonian identity, albeit initially a non-ethnic one, among a Slavonic population of historical-geographical Macedonia. Such politics inevitably facilitated the process of Macedonization and deBulgarization of Macedonian Slavs. Therefore, as a result, a majority of Yugoslav Macedonia’ Slavs (today FYROM) and the post-WWII Slavic diaspora from both Vardar and Aegean Macedonia nowadays consider themselves ethnic Macedonians rather than ethnic Bulgarians.

A time of Macedonization of Macedonia by the creation of Macedonian regional feelings, which after the WWII became transformed into the ethnonational consciousness, was also a time of the struggle over Macedonia between Greece, Bulgaria, and Serbia from 1870 to 1913. This struggle started with the establishment of an independent Bulgarian Orthodox Church (Exarchate) in 1870 and finished by the division of the territory of historical-geographical Macedonia between them after the Second Balkan War in 1913. Until 1870 Greeks had a hegemony over the Orthodox Christian millet in the European part of Ottoman Empire as only a Greek Orthodox Church (Patriarchate) existed up to 1870 when an autonomous Bulgarian Orthodox Church was established. Subsequently, Christian Orthodox communities in Macedonia had a choice after 1870 to affiliate themselves either with Greek or with Bulgarian church.[5] An actual cultural-national struggle for the allegiance of the population of Macedonia went on between Greece, Bulgaria, and Serbia as, for instance, Serbian and Greek schools and churches were established in the territory of Macedonia in order to encourage a particular ethnolinguistic and religious identity.[6] By the 1890s even guerrilla groups, sent out by Greece, Bulgaria, and Serbia to fight Ottoman authorities, terrorized the local population and tried to convince them of their true ethnonational identity. A struggle between Greece, Bulgaria, and Serbia for Macedonia was continuing in the following years and reached a climax during the Balkan Wars in 1912−1913. The struggle was finally ended by the partition of a historical-geographical territory of Macedonia between Bulgaria (annexed Pirin Macedonia), Greece (annexed Aegean Macedonia) and Serbia (annexed Vardar Macedonia).[7]

 

Prof. Dr Vladislav B. Sotirović

www.global-politics.eu/sotirovic

sotirovic@global-politics.eu

© Vladislav B. Sotirović 2018

 

References:

[1] Loring M. Danforth, “Claims to Macedonian Identity: The Macedonian Question and the Breakup of Yugoslavia”, Anthropology Today, Vol. 9, No. 4, 1993, 3−10.

[2] Victor Roudometof, “Nationalism and Identity Politics in the Balkans: Greece and the Macedonian Question”, Journal of Modern Greek Studies, Vol. 14, No. 2, 1996, 253−301.

[3] Loring M. Danforth, “Claims to Macedonian Identity: The Macedonian Question and the Breakup of Yugoslavia”, Anthropology Today, Vol. 9, No. 4, 1993, 3−10.

[4] Anastasia Karakasidou, “The Burden of the Balkans”, Anthropological Quarterly, Vol. 75, No. 3, 2002, 575−589.

[5] Loring M. Danforth, “Claims to Macedonian Identity: The Macedonian Question and the Breakup of Yugoslavia”, Anthropology Today, Vol. 9, No. 4, 1993, 3−10.

[6] James Pettifer, “The New Macedonian Question”, International Affairs, Vol. 68, No. 3, 1992, 475−485.

[7] Loring M. Danforth, “Claims to Macedonian Identity: The Macedonian Question and the Breakup of Yugoslavia”, Anthropology Today, Vol. 9, No. 4, 1993, 3−10.


Read our Disclaimer/Legal Statement!

Donate to Support Us

We would like to ask you to consider a small donation to help our team keep working. We accept no advertising and rely only on you, our readers, to keep us digging the truth on history, global politics and international relations.

[wpedon id=”4696″ align=”left”]

READ MORE!
Economic War Crimes: Dismantling Former Yugoslavia, Recolonizing Bosnia-Herzegovina
As heavily-armed US and NATO troops enforced the peace in Bosnia, the press and politicians alike portrayed Western intervention in the former Yugoslavia as a noble, if agonizingly belated, response to an outbreak of ethnic massacres and human rights violations. In the wake of the November 1995 Dayton peace accords, the West was eager to touch up its self-portrait as savior of the Southern Slavs and get on with “the work of rebuilding” the newly “sovereign states.” But following a pattern set early on, Western public opinion had been skillfully misled. The conventional wisdom exemplified by the writings of former US ...
READ MORE
27 Million Died in Russia because Wall Street Built Up Hitler’s Wehrmacht to Knock Out Soviet Union
With criminal corporate monopoly media masking the US created prosecutable genocide ongoing in Yemen, Somalia, South Sudan, Syria, Iraq and Afghanistan by focusing attention on Russia, fantasized  as a dangerous enemy needing military confrontation, it might be a good time to review past US planned, facilitated and at times perpetrated genocidal crimes in Russia. History in context kind of puts to rest all the hype about evil Russia seeking to expand when it already is the largest country in the world spanning nine time zones with only half the population of the US to fill it.In 1900, Russia and America ...
READ MORE
What is Israel’s Project in Argentina?
The Argentinian authorities are wondering about the massive purchase of land in Patagonia by a British billionaire, and the “holidays” that tens of thousands of Israeli soldiers are enjoying on his property.In the 19th century, the British government were undecided as to where they should settle Israel – either in what is now Uganda, in Argentina or in Palestine. In fact, Argentina was at that time controlled by the United Kingdom and, on the initiative of French baron Maurice de Hirsch, had become a land of refuge for Jews who were fleeing the pogroms in central Europe.In the 20th century, ...
READ MORE
Serbian Patriarchate of Peć in the Ottoman Empire: The First Phase (1557−1594)
IntroductionThe goals of this article are: 1) to investigate the role of the revived Patriarchate of Peć in Serbian and Balkan history?; and 2) to explore and present the results of investigation of the problems with respect to: a) the role of the Serbian Church during the first decades of the Ottoman occupation of Serbian lands in the process of the creation of a Serbian national identity; b) Serbian-Turkish relations in the second half of the 16th century; and c) the reasons for Serbian disloyalty towards the Ottoman government at the turn of the 17th century.The article addresses the reasons ...
READ MORE
Behind the Project of a Greater Albania
When at the 1878 Berlin Congress Serbia and Montenegro had to become recognized as sovereign states, the Muslim Albanian representatives tried to initiate the same for their own national state or wider autonomy within the Ottoman Empire which they considered as their own national state.They founded the (First) Prizren League in Metochia (the western portion of contemporary Kosovo).[1] However, this Islamic initiative failed with Bismarck’s explicit rejection to speak about Albanian nationality as nonexistent at all in Europe at that time as they have been considered as the Turks. At the same time, the Albanian national movement Rilindja was initiated, ...
READ MORE
Neocon Imperialism, 9/11, and the Attacks on Afghanistan and Iraq
One way to understand the effect of 9/11, in most general terms, is to see that it allowed the agenda developed in the 1990s by neoconservatives—-often called simply “neocons”—to be implemented. There is agreement on this point across the political spectrum. From the right, for example, Stefan Halper and Jonathan Clarke say that 9/11 allowed the “preexisting ideological agenda” of the neoconservatives to be “taken off the shelf . . . and relabeled as the response to terror.”1 Stephen Sniegoski, writing from the left, says that “it was only the traumatic effects of the 9/11 terrorism that enabled the agenda ...
READ MORE
Israeli Blockade of Gaza: The Only Solution is the Establishment of an Independent Palestinian State
Antisemitism needs an excuse and Netanyahu sadly provides it every day on the Israeli- Gaza border.  His heavily armed snipers have gratuitously killed over 200 unarmed Palestinians at the March of Return protest and injured over 10,000 at the border since 30 March 2018 in a sickening exhibition of state sponsored violence that has brought death and disability to those actively, and largely legitimately, demonstrating for return of their land and property. You cannot deprive 2m of their human rights, enshrined in international law, without consequences. Israel is not an island in the sky and the dispossessed Palestinian people are very ...
READ MORE
When Terrorism Becomes Counter-Terrorism
US foreign  policy has nurtured Al Qaeda, a creation of the CIA for more than 35 years, with the support of Pakistan’s Inter Services Intelligence (ISI) and Saudi Arabia’s  infamous  General Intelligence Presidency (GIP).  Lest we forget Osama bin Laden was recruited in 1979 by the CIA at the outset of the Soviet- Afghan war.A complex network of Al Qaeda affiliated terrorist organizations overseen by US and allied intelligence agencies has unfolded, extending across the Middle East, North Africa, sub-Saharan Africa, Central Asia, Western China, South and South East Asia.Rand Corporation  Report 2012While mainstream analysis regarding CIA covert  support of “jihadist” terrorist entities is a ...
READ MORE
Bill Clinton
A former U.S. President Bill Clinton's: Past, Present, Future:Origins of images: Facebook, Twitter, Wikimedia, Wikipedia, Flickr, Google, Imageinjection, Public Domain & Pinterest.Read our Disclaimer/Legal Statement!Donate to Support UsWe would like to ask you to consider a small donation to help our team keep working. We accept no advertising and rely only on you, our readers, to keep us digging the truth on history, global politics and international relations.[wpedon id="4696" align="left"]
READ MORE
Who is Angela Merkel – A Person of the Year (2015)?
Aleksandar Vučić, Adolf Hitler and Angela Merkel Angela Merkel as Stasi informer in 1972? Angela Merkel (at that time Kasner), age 17 in 1972, marching happily together with the DDR officer in her FDJ uniform? Origins of images: Facebook, Twitter, Wikimedia, Wikipedia, Flickr, Google, Imageinjection & Pinterest. Read our Disclaimer/Legal Statement! Donate to Support Us We would like to ask you to consider a small donation to help our team keep working. We accept no advertising and rely only on you, our readers, to keep us digging the truth on history, global politics and international relations. [wpedon id="4696" align="left"] Angela Merkel with a war criminal Hashim Tachi, a ...
READ MORE
Who are the Serbs?
Serbs: Basic factsEthnic location: Central and western part of the Balkan Peninsula (South-East Europe)Population: 10.2 million (1.8 million Serbs live outside their ethnic location)Language: SerbianReligion: Eastern Orthodox Christians1 Introduction Serbs belong to the Southslavonic group of Indo-European peoples. As their tradition, culture, language, beliefs, and customs show, the ethnogenesis of Serbs goes far back into the past. Serbian ancestors, Protoslavs and Old Serbs, were described in the 5th century BC by Herodotus, under the names of Neuri and Budini, living north of the Danube in the region between Dniepar and north-eastern Carpathian Mountains.The first mention of the name “Serbs” appears ...
READ MORE
New Israeli School Textbook Highlights Jewish Supremacy: Paints Palestinians as “Inferior”
To mark so-called ‘Independence Day’, Palestinian citizens forced to study the book that paints them as inferior to Jews.Ramallah: An Israeli civics textbook under the theme of ‘Being a Citizen in Israel’, launched to mark the regime’s commemoration of the 68th anniversary of its establishment, has been slammed for its negative and dismissive attitude towards the native Palestinian citizens.After the Israeli Education Ministry officially launched the textbook as part of the curriculum taught in Israeli schools, including those attended by Palestinian citizens, Palestinians reacted by condemning the move.Israel on Thursday marks the 68th anniversary of its 1948 founding in Palestine, ...
READ MORE
The Authoritarian Militarization of the Croats in the 1990s
The internal and much more external destruction of the former Yugoslavia in the 1990s was celebrating in 2015 its 20th year of anniversary. However, this historical and much more geopolitical event still needs a satisfactory research approach in regard to the true geopolitical reasons and political-military course of the destruction of this South Slavic and Balkan state. During the last quarter of century, the (western) global mainstream media unanimously accused Serbia and the Serbs of the national chauvinism as the main cause of the bloody wars on the territory of ex-Yugoslavia in the 1990s. However, the role and direct impact ...
READ MORE
Western Christianity and its Traditional Discrimination In Favour of the Right Wing Politics
My choicest political adviser is God who told me to run for the Presidency Rev. Pat Robertson, quoted in the Church Times, March 1988. When all countries lived under absolutist governments the Churches enjoyed a much closer relationship with the State than they do in democratic societies. Some of most cruel rulers in history were happily accommodated by the Church. (Vlad the Impaler was a convert to Roman Catholicism). In recent centuries the Roman Church has always favoured authoritarian regimes that have allowed it privileges, while opposing liberal and democratic governments that have not. For example, in 1862 Pius IX concluded a ...
READ MORE
Air Strikes against Syria: Who are the War Criminals?
America is coming to the rescue of Al Qaeda under a humanitarian mandate. The unspoken agenda is to undermine the Liberation of Aleppo. The pretext and justification for these actions are based on America’s “responsibility to protect” (R2P) the “moderates” in Aleppo from Syrian and Russian attacks and bombing raids.On October 3, the US State Department announced the suspension of bilateral relations with Russia pertaining to Syria (see document below), in response to which, France’s foreign Minister Jean Marc Ayrault was called upon to intermediate at the diplomatic level. Pointing his finger at Russia’s Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov, Jean Marc Ayrault casually accused Moscow ...
READ MORE
Edward S. Herman: The Politics of the Srebrenica Massacre
“Srebrenica” has become the symbol of evil, and specifically Serb evil. It is commonly described as “a horror without parallel in the history of Europe since the Second World War” in which there was a cold-blooded execution “of at least 8,000 Muslim men and boys.” [1] The events in question took place in or near the Bosnian town of Srebrenica between July 10 and 19, 1995, as the Bosnian Serb army (BSA) occupied that town and fought with and killed many Bosnian Muslims, unknown numbers dying in the fighting and by executions. There is no question but that there were ...
READ MORE
Kiev Regime – A Western Frankenstein Creation
Russian President Vladimir Putin put it succinctly when he recently warned that prospects for peace in Ukraine were negligible as long as the current authorities in Kiev remain in power. Worse, given a new rash of provocations by the Kiev regime, the entire region is being threatened with conflict, and even all-out war.It seems clear – and criminally reprehensible – that the Kiev regime and its President Petro Poroshenko are intent on dragging the United States and the NATO military alliance into a war with Russia. The incendiary conduct of Ukrainian politicians and their military is that of a regime ...
READ MORE
An Albanian family around 1910
The Great European Powers and the BalkansThe Balkans is a term connoting peoples, cultures, and states that make up a peninsula of South-East Europe between the Black Sea, the Adriatic Sea, the Aegean Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea. There are three crucial points of the Balkan’s significance from the geostrategic point of view: The territory of the Balkans is an important connection between West and Central Europe and the Near and the Middle East. Wealthy of the region’s natural resources. The region which is located betwixt the Danube River, the Black Sea and East Mediterranean is an important part of ...
READ MORE
Modern-Day Croatia is a Carbon Copy of WWII Nazi-Monstrous Independent State of Croatia
Ante Pavelic - a leader of the Independent State of Croatia with the Roman Catholic clergy Scattered over almost two centuries across the globe – in Germany, the US, Canada, Argentina and Australia – most members of the Croatian diaspora are still closely linked to their homeland.The Croatian state responds in kind; it pledges to take “special care” of Croats living abroad, a pledge outlined in the country’s 1990 constitution. Subsequently, Croatia has set up the Central State Office for Croats Abroad, as well as a government body, the Council for Croats Abroad.More controversially, some in the diaspora maintain close ...
READ MORE
How Fascism Won Control in The West
"The West" is the nations that are essentially controlled, basically dictated-to, by America's approximately 600 billionaires, who control the U.S. Government, by coordinatedly funding (through their news-media and political donations, and also by their members-only private conferences) the careers of cooperative politicians, and who thereby defeat the politicians who act against increasing the percentage of the nation's wealth that these few people hold, and against increasing their extractions from everybody else. (Those non-compliant politicians are derisively called "socialists" and equated with the communist Joseph Stalin instead of with the democratic socialist FDR and the leaders of the democratic socialist Scandinavian ...
READ MORE
Economic War Crimes: Dismantling Former Yugoslavia, Recolonizing Bosnia-Herzegovina
27 Million Died in Russia because Wall Street Built Up Hitler’s Wehrmacht to Knock Out Soviet Union
What is Israel’s Project in Argentina?
Serbian Patriarchate of Peć in the Ottoman Empire: The First Phase (1557−1594)
Behind the Project of a Greater Albania
Neocon Imperialism, 9/11, and the Attacks on Afghanistan and Iraq
Israeli Blockade of Gaza: The Only Solution is the Establishment of an Independent Palestinian State
When Terrorism Becomes Counter-Terrorism
Bill Clinton
Who is Angela Merkel – A Person of the Year (2015)?
Who are the Serbs?
New Israeli School Textbook Highlights Jewish Supremacy: Paints Palestinians as “Inferior”
The Authoritarian Militarization of the Croats in the 1990s
Western Christianity and its Traditional Discrimination In Favour of the Right Wing Politics
Air Strikes against Syria: Who are the War Criminals?
Edward S. Herman: The Politics of the Srebrenica Massacre
Kiev Regime – A Western Frankenstein Creation
The Albanian Question at the Turn of the 20th Century
Modern-Day Croatia is a Carbon Copy of WWII Nazi-Monstrous Independent State of Croatia
How Fascism Won Control in The West
FOLLOW US ON OUR SOCIAL PLATFORMS
Share