The 1929 Lateran Treaty: B. Mussolini’s Faith-Based Initiative

Hits: 774

This Wednesday, February 11 [2009], will mark the 80th anniversary of the signing of the Lateran Treaty and related agreements, in which Benito Mussolini’s Italy recognized the Vatican as an independent state and showered it with money and other benefits. Mussolini got what he paid for.

For well over a thousand years prior to 1929, Popes exercised absolute civil authority over central Italy, a region known as the “Papal States.” Their power was based on a document called the “Donation of Constantine,” in which the 4th century Roman emperor Constantine was supposed to have granted the successors of St. Peter control over this portion of his domain. It was later conclusively proven that this document was a crude forgery, and Constantine had done no such thing. Mere historical facts were not allowed to get in the way of the Popes’ power, though.

By the mid-19th century, the Papal States had become the most backward part of Europe. This happened in part because of the refusal of Popes to permit the introduction of satanic contraptions like the railroad and telegraph, which might cause confusion among the subjects by facilitating the spread of Enlightenment ideas. Periodically the people would revolt, only to be suppressed by troops supplied by Austria or France. A series of wars that led to the unification of Italy from 1848 to 1870, though, shrunk the area of Papal control to the 109 acres occupied by Vatican City today. Referenda were held among the people of the former Papal State territories, in which they overwhelmingly approved joining the rest of Italy under a constitutional monarchy with a freely-elected parliament.

The Pope of the day, Pius IX, refused to accept this diminution of his power. He announced to the world that he regarded himself as being held prisoner in the Vatican by the Italian government, and would not budge from it until his kingdom was restored. His appeals for outside military help fell on deaf ears, though, and he never ventured outside the Vatican complex again. Neither did any of his successors – for nearly 60 years.

The Italian state had no interest in imprisoning the Pope, or in exercising any control over Catholic religious doctrine. It simply wanted to govern Italy, in accordance with the will of elected representatives. Shortly after the victory of 1870, the government enacted a “Law of Guarantees,” protecting the Pope and exempting him from all jurisdiction of Italian courts. The Law of Guarantees also forbade the government inspection of Papal departments with purely spiritual functions, while awarding the Pope himself a generous annual income. The Popes, though, refused to accept the money, because doing so might acknowledge the validity of a status they rejected; in fact, they never recognized the sovereignty of the Italian state at all. An infallible Pope, who maintains earth’s only direct line to God, could not allow himself to be subject to the will of any other mortal; unlike every other religious leader on the planet, the Pope insisted on the need to govern all aspects of his own earthly kingdom. So the standoff continued, Pope after Pope, even though the government scrupulously adhered to its policy of non-interference in spiritual affairs – “a free Church in a free state,” as the Italian statesman Cavour had put it. Even the Pope admitted when the Lateran treaty was ultimately signed that “For the last sixty years the Vatican has in fact governed without any special complications.”

In 1922, Benito Mussolini’s Fascist Party seized power in Italy. Not through free elections, as Hitler later did, but through the threat of a violent uprising that caused a timid government to buckle. Mussolini had never been terribly religious; in 1908 he had dismissed priests as “black microbes who are as fatal to mankind as tuberculosis germs,” and he later wrote a scurrilous novel called The Cardinal’s Mistress. In 1910 he introduced a resolution urging members of his party to “avoid religious marriage and the baptism of their children.” As recently as 1920 he railed against what he called the “rival Vaticans” of Rome and Moscow. “We are the heretics of both religions. We have torn to pieces all the revealed truths, we have spat upon all the dogmas, rejected all the paradises, scoffed at all the charlatans – red, white and black – who market miraculous drugs to give happiness to mankind.”

Nonetheless, his coup was quietly backed by the Church, which bet that Fascism’s drive for lockstep “unity” as the ultimate goal of social organization would result in the Church being united in rather than squeezed out. The Church even caused Italy’s Catholic political party to disband rather than to oppose Mussolini.

The Church guessed right. One of Mussolini’s first acts was to re-install crucifixes in classrooms and courtrooms that had been removed during Italy’s short-lived attempt to separate Church and state. In 1926, secret negotiations commenced over a series of agreements that ultimately included a “treaty” in which Italy would recognize the 109 acre Vatican City as an independent country, a concordat establishing Catholicism as Italy’s official religion and granting the Church enormous power, and a financial “settlement” in which the taxpayers of Italy forked over millions of lire, equivalent to well over $1 billion in today’s money, to soothe the Pope’s anguish over the loss of his lands. Over half the price was paid in bonds rather than in cash, to keep the Church dependent on future government willingness to honor the arrangement.

The financial settlement was the most galling aspect of the deal. The people of central Italy had revolted successfully against a monarch claiming to rule by divine right, exactly as the people of the North American colonies had revolted successfully against another monarch in 1776. Did it ever dawn on George Washington, et al. that it might be fair to pay a billion dollars to George III to compensate him for his loss? For that matter, did the Church ever contemplate reimbursing the government of Italy for having appropriated the Papal States in the first place based on a forged document? Mussolini knew that Italian taxpayers were simply bribing the Church to support his Fascist unity; only by eliminating all dissent at home could he move forward with his dream to re-create a Roman empire.

As it turned out, the sovereign independence of Vatican City has been of interest to more than just stamp collectors. Under the leadership of one Bernardino Nogara, the Vatican Bank that was capitalized with the proceeds of Mussolini’s payments became one of the major forces in Italian finance, owning several banks, munitions factories, and even Italy’s largest manufacturer of contraceptive devices that were officially banned by the Church. Cardinal Spellman exaggerated only slightly when he claimed that “Next to Jesus Christ, the greatest thing that has happened to the Catholic Church is Bernardino Nogara.” It didn’t take long to figure out that a Bank located on “sovereign” Vatican soil was regulated by no one other than the Pope, and could thus engage with impunity in activities that would be illegal anywhere else: evasion of currency expatriation laws, laundering of drug money, and by the 1970s securities frauds that would have made Enron executives blush. Whenever an American or Italian prosecutor would follow a money trail that led to the Bank, the investigation would have to stop, because no one other than the Pope had the right to inspect the Bank’s records. Some prosecutors who seemed to be closing in on the truth were gunned down on the streets. David Yallop’s book In God’s Name describes the highly suspicious circumstances surrounding the death of Pope John Paul I after only 33 days on the job, which Yallop portrays as a murder to prevent the Pope from making changes at the Bank. No prosecutor has ever been able to investigate that incident, either, because it occurred on Vatican soil. Had Italian law applied, there would at least have been an autopsy.

Mussolini, of course, foresaw none of this. What he saw was that if he was going to create a totalitarian state to replace liberal pluralism, he either had to crush the Church or to co-opt it. Co-opting it was easier.

When the Lateran Treaty was signed 80 years ago last Wednesday, the Archbishop of Quebec claimed that “This historic event, prepared by the providential meeting of a great minister with a great Pope, can only augment the prestige of the Papacy and favor the expansion of Catholicism.” The Pope announced that “We have given back God to Italy, and Italy to God.” According to a shrewd German observer named Adolf Hitler, “The fact that the Curia is now making its peace with Fascism shows that the Vatican trusts the new political realities far more than it did the former liberal democracy, with which it could not come to terms.” The French press gloomily agreed with Hitler’s assessment, warning that the agreements represented “the alliance of the two Romes against the France of 1789.”

The treaties put Catholic indoctrination back into the public schools, recognizing the right of the Catholic bishops to remove any government-paid teacher of religion at will. Suspended priests were banned from all employment that would put them in contact with the public. Priests were exempted not only from military service and taxes, but even from jury duty; priests who committed crimes could be punished only by the Church, not by the state.


Mussolini also used tax money to pay for the salaries of the clergy and the repair of church buildings. When you pay for something, of course, you own it; the treaty made it clear that the Church could not appoint a bishop without advance approval of the Italian government. This power was critical in Mussolini’s eyes. “In the Italian State,” he bragged, “the Church is not sovereign, it is not even free.”

The only serious dispute after the signing of the Treaty involved Catholic Action, the network of labor and youth organizations maintained by the Church in its effort to permeate every sphere of human activity with Catholic thinking. Mussolini, though wanted Italians to think like Fascists, not like Catholics, and sicced his goons onto Catholic Action offices, meetings, and processions. After resisting for a time, the Church finally knuckled under; Catholic Action agreed to stop pursuing trade union or other political ends and limit itself strictly to religious devotions, while removing opponents of Fascism from its leadership positions.

The Church was amply rewarded for its docility. The Freemasons, the principal organization advocating separation of Church and State, was formally abolished and over a hundred Masonic officials were informally assassinated. Protestantism had never been prominent in Italy, but the 135,000 Protestants who spoiled Italy’s absolute religious unity were monitored, harassed, and systematically prevented from proselytizing. The American Catholic Monsignor Ryan cited these policies as a shining example of “Truth having rights, and error none.” Or as the Pope put it in 1932, “In this conflict, there is really question of the fundamental problem of the universe and of the most important decision proposed to man’s free will. For God or against God: this once more is the alternative that shall decide the destinies of all mankind in politics, in finance, in morals, in the sciences and arts, in the State, in civil and domestic society.”

Dictatorship only works when the public reveres the dictator. In Italy and around the world, the Catholic Church did everything it could to promote that reverence. The Pope called Mussolini “the man sent by Providence,” and the Cardinal of Milan referred to him as “the new Constantine.” The Bishop of Cleveland called him the “Man of Destiny,” and Cardinal O’Connell of Boston, who received a high Fascist decoration, exalted him as “a genius in the field of government, given to Italy by God.” Catholic newspapers filled their pages with official propaganda against democracy and praise for the Italian warlike spirit, reminding the faithful that Jesus himself had said “I have not come to bring peace, but a sword.” Fascism permeated Italian religious life down to the smallest detail: the protocol of Catholic processions was modified to match that of Fascist parades, Catholic publications displayed the year of the regime alongside that of the Christian era, and virtually every bishop’s pronouncement and sermon recited obsequious praise for the Duce, not just as a head of government but as a pioneer of civilization’s renewal.

If imitation is the sincerest form of flattery, then the Church’s social teaching flattered Mussolini as well. A 1931 encyclical on “Reconstructing the Social Order” advocated an authoritarian, corporate state as a solution for the world’s economic ills. Advancing an economic program strikingly similar to Fascism, it denounced socialism explicitly, and called for an authoritarian labor movement to combat the left. Singling out Mussolini’s corporative organizations that prohibited all strikes and lockouts, the Pope said: “Little reflection is required to perceive the advantage of the institution thus summarily described; peaceful collaboration of the classes, repression of Socialist organizations and efforts, the moderating influence of a special ministry.”

The reason why Mussolini was so insistent on totalitarian unity at home was to strengthen Italy’s hand abroad. The Church cooperated as eagerly as it knew how. Prior to the Lateran Treaty, the Church had made nice to Soviet Russia, apparently hoping that the demise of the Russian Orthodox Church would create a vacuum it could fill. It sent missionaries to aid in Russian famine relief, and even spoke highly of the “Living Church” movement invented by the Bolsheviks in 1922 to provide a pro-government alternative to the Orthodox Church. The Church’s Soviet initiative may or may not have been naïve; in any case, after aligning with Mussolini, the Vatican’s rhetoric became passionately anti-Bolshevik.

Mussolini sought to break up Yugoslavia by sponsoring Croatian terrorists, who assassinated the Yugoslav king and who launched a Bay of Pigs style invasion from Italian soil. The Church fanned the flames with a stream of invective against the Yugoslav government for its alleged oppression of Croat Catholics. Catholic youth were even forbidden from participating in the Yugoslav national youth organization, because it lacked sufficient religious content.

Mussolini also sought to extend Italian influence over predominantly Muslim Albania by establishing Italian-controlled technical schools and other cultural institutions there. When Albania’s king responded by closing the technical schools and Catholic schools as well, Mussolini erupted. The king backed down and offered a compromise in which the technical schools would be reopened and the Italian language would be made compulsory in all secondary schools. Not good enough, replied Mussolini; the Catholic schools had to be reopened as well. The standoff continued until Mussolini invaded and conquered Albania in 1939, paving the way for the reopening of the Catholic schools.

Mussolini’s most famous foreign adventure, though, was his invasion of Ethiopia in 1935. The Church could barely contain its enthusiasm; the Cardinal of Milan crowed that “On the plains of Ethiopia, the Italian Standard carries forward in triumph the Cross of Christ, … and opens the way for the missionaries of the Gospel.” The Bishop of Cremona chimed in: “The blessing of God be upon these soldiers who, on African soil, will conquer new and fertile lands for the Italian genius, thereby bringing to them Roman and Christian culture. May Italy stand once again as the Christian mentor to the whole world.” The Archbishop of Torano exclaimed that “The war against Ethiopia should be considered as a holy war, a crusade” that would “open Ethiopia, a country of infidels and schismatics, to the expansion of the Catholic Faith.” On a specially-proclaimed “Day of Faith” priests turned over their offertory collections to support the war.

Catholic political parties around the world vigorously supported Mussolini’s crusade, and opposed the League of Nations sanctions against it. Church support never wavered when the army started using poison gas after encountering unexpectedly strong Ethiopian opposition, nor when it executed 30,000 prisoners after a failed attempt to assassinate the military governor. The war ultimately took over three quarters of a million Ethiopian lives. Neither did the Church have any official comment when Mussolini adopted his “Manifesto of Race” in 1938, banning both Jews and Africans from the professions and subjecting their property to confiscation.

After Italy attacked France in 1940, Italian bishops enthusiastically wired Mussolini their pious hope that he would “crown the unfailing victory of our arms by planting the Italian flag over the Holy Sepulcher.” In November, 1941, Italy conferred the title of “prince” on the Pope’s nephews.

A best-selling 1994 book by John Cornwell characterized Pius XII as “Hitler’s Pope” and made a case for Vatican complicity in the Jewish Holocaust. Cornwell’s argument is weak, and undermines the legitimate case that can be made against the Church’s promotion of Fascism. Hitler and Pius XII actually detested one another, and despite his anti-Semitism Pius in fact acted to save the lives of thousands of Jews in Rome. Whether a vocal opposition to the Holocaust would have done more good than harm is debatable and unprovable. What is not nearly as debatable is that Mussolini bought the Roman Catholic Church outright, which responded with grateful cooperation in all his despicable schemes.


Originally published 2009-02-14

Source: God Experts

Origins of images: Facebook, Twitter, Wikimedia, Wikipedia, Flickr, Google, Imageinjection & Pinterest.

Read our Disclaimer/Legal Statement!

Donate to Support Us

We would like to ask you to consider a small donation to help our team keep working. We accept no advertising and rely only on you, our readers, to keep us digging the truth on history, global politics and international relations.

[wpedon id=”4696″ align=”left”]

READ MORE!
“The Civilized World” Strikes Again: Donald Trump, a Complete Puppet of the Military Industrial Complex
It is apparent given the timelines and the lack of time given to verifying the validity of accusations concerning the gas attack in Homs, Syria, that plans had already been coordinated for such an attack. Watching the mainstream media the viewer receives the impression from the wording of the announcers reports and questions for the “experts” that the matter was already decided in favour of the U.S. military strike on the airbase. I see pictures of Colin Powell at the UN holding up glossy photos of supposed chemical weapons manufacturing plants. It demonstrates to a high degree how easily manipulated Trump ...
READ MORE
“Fake Scholarship” and the Future of America’s University
Harvard University has established a modern version of the Catholic Church’s Index Librorum Prohibitorum, a list of prohibited online publications which are tagged as “fake” and “false”, broadly following the politically tainted “List” of censored independent and alternative media. As we recall the Catholic Church’s Index was a list of books “deemed heretical, anti-clerical or lascivious”.1  Ex Cathedra, Harvard has decided in one fell swoop that virtually the entire US based “Alternative Media” pertaining to tens of thousands of authors would be categorized not only as fake news, but fake science, knowledge and analysis. The Harvard Index however goes far beyond the Catholic Church’s Index which selectively banned books ...
READ MORE
What is the European Union for?
After all the initial eu(ro)phoria and hopes placed upon the original concept of a non-aligned, social-democratic Euro-bloc, the reality has turned out somewhat differently.In a pamphlet written in 2011 – Europe: The Unfinished Project – I wrote:At the present time the EU project seems to be stuck in no-man’s land, unable to press ahead with full political integration, or retreat back into a northern European protectionist Deutschmark zone, and leaving the peripheral member states to the tender mercies of unfettered, globalized capitalism. However there seems to be a sufficient residue of the original EU idealism in the present stage of ...
READ MORE
Rape and War: The US Experience
On July 9, 2006, the U.S. Army charged five US soldiers with the rape and murder of a 14-year-old Iraqi girl, Abeer Qasim Hamza al-Janabi, and the murder of her parents and 5-year-old sister. This brutal and senseless war crime raises the issue of rape in war. The lynchpin of US propaganda and infowar spin is that Soviet troops raped German women when the Red Army took Berlin in 1945. This was meant to take away from the Russian military achievement in taking Berlin. The Russian soldiers were “rapists” while US soldiers were “liberators”, handing out chocolate bars, chewing gum, ...
READ MORE
The Russian World and European Civilization
In recent years, both the Western as well as the liberal Russian press have had a lot to say about Russian “barbarianism,” as if to contrast it with European “civilization.” But a closer inspection – through the prism of the heroic pages of Russian history – of the two groups’ moral ideals and actual lives presents us with quite a different picture.For example, in pagan times, ancient Russians never worshipped a god of war, although their contemporaries in Europe were transfixed by their own martial deity, constructing an entire epic narrative around the concepts of war and conquest.After defeating the ...
READ MORE
North Macedonia Is Being Used by NATO to Target Serbia and Russia
The North Macedonian House of Representatives unanimously approved on Monday for their country to accept the NATO Accession Protocol, taking the former Yugoslav Republic a step closer towards accession into NATO which is expected to be completed and finalized in the spring. North Macedonia’s rapid accession into NATO is only possible because of the Prespa Agreement signed between Athens and Skopje in June 2018, bringing an end to the name dispute between the two countries that emerged in 1991 with the breakup of Yugoslavia.The Prespa Agreement, named after a lake that traverses the borders of Greece, North Macedonia and Albania, defined ...
READ MORE
World Conquest: The United States’ Global Military Crusade since 1945
GR Editor’s Note The following article by professor Eric Waddell was first published twelve years ago by Global Research in December 2003 in the immediate wake of the invasion and occupation of  Iraq by US and British forces, with a postscript added in 2007.  The article provides an incisive historical perspective on America’s “long war” against humanity, which is being carried out under a fake humanitarian mandate. Let us be under no illusions as to the intent of the US and its allies. We are dealing with World Conquest under the disguise of a “Global War on Terrorism”.  Michel Chossudovsky, December 24, ...
READ MORE
Killing a Republic – Kissinger and Cyprus
In July 1974 the US-controlled Athens military junta organized a coup d’état in Cyprus and an assassination attempt against the President of Cyprus Archbishop Makarios. Everything was executed in exactly the same way as it had been a year before in Santiago Chile. (Cyprus is an island of great strategic importance, now a member of EU and Eurozone. 82% of his population are Greek by nationality and 18% Turkish Cypriots. The country obtained its independence from Britain in 1960, after one of the most successful national-liberation struggles after the 2nd World War). Unlike Salvador Allende, Makarios escaped death and with him ...
READ MORE
Operation Barbarossa: The 75th Anniversary of the Nazi Invasion of the Soviet Union
Seventy-five years ago Adolf Hitler launched the biggest and most destructive military campaign in history when three million German and allied troops invaded the Soviet Union along a 1,000-mile front.Operation Barbarossa – the codename for the German invasion of Russia - was no ordinary military campaign: it was an ideological and racist war, a war of destruction and extermination that aimed to kill Jews, enslave the Slavic peoples and destroy communism. The result was a war in which 25 million Soviet citizens died, including a million Jews, executed by the SS in 1941-1942 – an action which became the template ...
READ MORE
The Irish Republican Brotherhood
One of the most controversial, influential, and well-known revolutionary organizations in the world was the Irish Republican Army (the IRA) considered to be both patriotic and terrorists.The FeniansIt is of extreme debate the question of its real origin but it is mostly accepted the standpoint that the origins of the IRA are in the Irish Republican Brotherhood (the IRB) or popularly known as the Fenians as it grew out of the Fenian movement.[1] The name is coming from the Irish armed forces in legendary times. The Fenian movement was founded as both the Fenian Brotherhood in the USA by John ...
READ MORE
Adolf Hitler and Roman Catholic theologians
Introduction The propaganda by the Christian churches in regard to their role during WWII in Fascist Italy, Yugoslavia, and Nazi Germany has so conditioned their believers that most of them believe that Christianity played an honorable role at best, and only a silent role at worst. Yet there seems little recognition that the very framework of the beliefs owned by the Fascists and Nazis came from their Christian upbringing from church, school, and Christian traditions. The entire anti-Jewish and racial sentiments came not from some new philosophy or unique ideology, but rather from centuries of Christian preaching against the Jews, gypsies, ...
READ MORE
America and the Great Abdication: Don’t Mistake Donald Trump’s Withdrawal from the World for Isolationism
When great powers fade, as they inevitably must, it’s normally for one of two reasons. Some powers exhaust themselves through overreach abroad, underinvestment at home, or a mixture of the two. This was the case for the Soviet Union. Other powers lose their privileged position with the emergence of new, stronger powers. This describes what happened with France and Great Britain in the case of Germany’s emergence after World War I and, more benignly, with the European powers and the rise of the United States during and after World War II.To some extent America is facing a version of this—amid ...
READ MORE
Conrad Von Hetzendorf: The General Who Demanded War on Serbia 25 Times in a Year
In time when (on the occasion of the 100th anniversary since WWI ended) we face almost daily attempts to reinterpret and revision the role of Serbia in the outbreak of the Great War, all in order to push aside well established facts of who and what for the war started, it is Her majesty history that reminds us of Chief of staff of the Austro-Hungarian army, who was obsessed with the idea that the Austro-Hungarian empire can be preserved only if it attacks and conquers Serbia .Relations between Serbia and Austro-Hungary were tense from the moment when the Congress of ...
READ MORE
Marti Ahtisaari and the Waffen SS
In 1999, when he was the President of Finland, Marti Ahtisaari’s government wanted to honor and to commemorate the 3,000 Finnish Nazi Waffen SS volunteers that served in Heinrich Himmler’s SS. Why would any government, indeed, why would anyone, want to honor and commemorate SS troops? Why would anyone want to honor and commemorate Nazis and Nazism? This is the question that has remained unanswered in the US and Western media about Marti Ahtisaari. As a sock puppet for the US, NATO, and EU, Ahtisaari’s role in honoring and commemorating the Nazi Waffen SS has been suppressed. As a Chairman ...
READ MORE
America’s Recent Achievements in the Middle East
Here are before-and-after pictures, at https://twitter.com/MAL0mt/status/701077438525263873/photo/1, of what the U.S. government has achieved, in the Middle East:What’s especially interesting there, is that in all of these missions, except for Iraq, the U.S. was doing it with the key participation of the Saud family, the royals who own Saudi Arabia, and who are the world’s largest buyers of American weaponry. Since Barack Obama came into the White House, the operations — Libya, Yemen, and Syria — have been, to a large extent, joint operations with the Sauds. ‘We’ are now working more closely with ‘our’ ‘friends’, even than ‘we’ were under George W. Bush.As President Obama instructed his military, ...
READ MORE
The Caliphate of Trump
They are the extremists. If you need proof, look no further than the Afghan capital, Kabul, where the latest wave of suicide bombings has proven devastating. Recently, for instance, a fanatic set off his explosives among a group of citizens lining up outside a government office to register to vote in upcoming elections. At least 57 people died, including 22 women and eight children. ISIS’s branch in Afghanistan proudly took responsibility for that callous act -- but one not perhaps quite as callous as the ISIS suicide bomber who, in August 2016, took out a Kurdish wedding in Turkey, missing the bride and groom but killing at ...
READ MORE
Jasenovac – the Glossed Over Auschwitz of the Balkans
Unfathomable as that may appear, yes, it was quite possible for the second-ranking slaughterhouse in Europe in recent memory to have slipped off the radar screen. Even such a renowned authority as Professor Gideon Greif is having an exceptionally difficult time of it in trying to put it back on.Precisely because it has not been the theme of any Hollywood spectaculars, Jasenovac does not attract any school excursions and textbooks are largely silent about it. Some background information on Jasenovac therefore seems like a good place to start.The Jasenovac death camp (1941 – 1945) is inextricably bound up with the ...
READ MORE
Why V. Yanukovych Said No to the European Union
Christopher Marsh and I, in our recently published book (Russian Foreign Policy: Interests, Vectors and Sectors), sketch out what we term "Putin's Eurasian dream"—the ambition to create a Eurasian economic and political zone where Moscow sets the overall agenda and is able to hold its own in the global geopolitical competition with the United States, the EU and China—and to have the foundations laid by 2015. A major obstacle to this vision was abruptly removed on Thursday when Ukrainian president Viktor Yanukovych announced that his country would not sign a landmark partnership agreement with the European Union—which Russia had consistently ...
READ MORE
The Unspoken Crimes of World War II: The Dresden Massacre of 1945
It is 70-years anniversary of the end of the WWII – the bloodiest and most horrible war ever fought in the human history. The war that caused creation of the UN in 1945 in order to protect the world from similar events in the future – a pan-global political-security organization of which first issued legal act was the UN Charter, which inspired the 1948 Geneva Conventions’ definition of genocide. The Nüremberg and Tokyo Trials were organized as “The Last Battles” for justice as the first ever global trials for the war criminals and mass murderers including and the top-hierarchy statesmen and ...
READ MORE
Ethnic Cleansing in Kosovo and the Rights of Serbian Minority: Ten Years after the “March Pogrom 2004”
IntroductionThis article deals with the question of political and human/minority rights in the region of Kosovo & Metohija ten years after the „March Pogrom 2004“ and fifteen years after the NATO’s military aggression on Serbia and Montenegro and occupation of the region. An importance of this research topic is in a fact that for the first time in the European history a terrorist-style and mafia-ruled (quasi)independent state was created by a full diplomatic, political, economic, military and financial sponsorship by the West under the umbrella of the NATO’s and the EU’s protective administration. The precedence of Kosovo’s self-proclaimed independence in ...
READ MORE
“The Civilized World” Strikes Again: Donald Trump, a Complete Puppet of the Military Industrial Complex
“Fake Scholarship” and the Future of America’s University
What is the European Union for?
Rape and War: The US Experience
The Russian World and European Civilization
North Macedonia Is Being Used by NATO to Target Serbia and Russia
World Conquest: The United States’ Global Military Crusade since 1945
Killing a Republic – Kissinger and Cyprus
Operation Barbarossa: The 75th Anniversary of the Nazi Invasion of the Soviet Union
The Irish Republican Brotherhood
Christianity in Europe During the WWII
America and the Great Abdication: Don’t Mistake Donald Trump’s Withdrawal from the World for Isolationism
Conrad Von Hetzendorf: The General Who Demanded War on Serbia 25 Times in a Year
Marti Ahtisaari and the Waffen SS
America’s Recent Achievements in the Middle East
The Caliphate of Trump
Jasenovac – the Glossed Over Auschwitz of the Balkans
Why V. Yanukovych Said No to the European Union
The Unspoken Crimes of World War II: The Dresden Massacre of 1945
Ethnic Cleansing in Kosovo and the Rights of Serbian Minority: Ten Years after the “March Pogrom 2004”

Written by Policraticus

SHORT LEGAL DISCLAIMER: The website’s owner & editor-in-chief has no official position on any issue published at this website. The views of the authors presented at this website do not necessarily coincide with the opinion of the owner & editor-in-chief of the website. The contents of all material (articles, books, photos, videos…) are of sole responsibility of the authors. The owner & editor-in-chief of this website is not morally, scientifically or legally responsible for any inaccurate or incorrect statement in the contents of all material found on this website. The owner & editor-in-chief of this website is not responsible for the content of external internet sites. No advertising, government or corporate funding for the functioning of this website. The owner & editor-in-chief and authors are not morally, scientifically or legally responsible for any inaccurate or incorrect statement in the text and material found on the website www.global-politics.eu

Website: http://www.global-politics.eu

One comment to “The 1929 Lateran Treaty: B. Mussolini’s Faith-Based Initiative”

Comments are closed.