The Peace Treaty of Westphalia (1648) and Its Consequences for International Relations

International relations (IR) from the mid-17th century to the mid-20th century were founded on the decisions by the Peace Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 that ended the Thirty Years War. However, from the beginning of the 21st century, the IR are once again more and more framed by the international standards established in 1648 […]

READ MORE The Peace Treaty of Westphalia (1648) and Its Consequences for International Relations

Westphalian Foundations of Modern International Relations, Global Politics and Global Security

The practical implementation of the principles of the 1648 Peace Treaty of Westphalia became, however, contradictory in its nature as they were, in essence, opposing each other to the level not to be finally compatible […]

READ MORE Westphalian Foundations of Modern International Relations, Global Politics and Global Security