The 1929 Lateran Treaty: B. Mussolini’s Faith-Based Initiative

This Wednesday, February 11 [2009], will mark the 80th anniversary of the signing of the Lateran Treaty and related agreements, in which Benito Mussolini’s Italy recognized the Vatican as an independent state and showered it with money and other benefits. Mussolini got what he paid for.

For well over a thousand years prior to 1929, Popes exercised absolute civil authority over central Italy, a region known as the “Papal States.” Their power was based on a document called the “Donation of Constantine,” in which the 4th century Roman emperor Constantine was supposed to have granted the successors of St. Peter control over this portion of his domain. It was later conclusively proven that this document was a crude forgery, and Constantine had done no such thing. Mere historical facts were not allowed to get in the way of the Popes’ power, though.

By the mid-19th century, the Papal States had become the most backward part of Europe. This happened in part because of the refusal of Popes to permit the introduction of satanic contraptions like the railroad and telegraph, which might cause confusion among the subjects by facilitating the spread of Enlightenment ideas. Periodically the people would revolt, only to be suppressed by troops supplied by Austria or France. A series of wars that led to the unification of Italy from 1848 to 1870, though, shrunk the area of Papal control to the 109 acres occupied by Vatican City today. Referenda were held among the people of the former Papal State territories, in which they overwhelmingly approved joining the rest of Italy under a constitutional monarchy with a freely-elected parliament.

The Pope of the day, Pius IX, refused to accept this diminution of his power. He announced to the world that he regarded himself as being held prisoner in the Vatican by the Italian government, and would not budge from it until his kingdom was restored. His appeals for outside military help fell on deaf ears, though, and he never ventured outside the Vatican complex again. Neither did any of his successors – for nearly 60 years.

The Italian state had no interest in imprisoning the Pope, or in exercising any control over Catholic religious doctrine. It simply wanted to govern Italy, in accordance with the will of elected representatives. Shortly after the victory of 1870, the government enacted a “Law of Guarantees,” protecting the Pope and exempting him from all jurisdiction of Italian courts. The Law of Guarantees also forbade the government inspection of Papal departments with purely spiritual functions, while awarding the Pope himself a generous annual income. The Popes, though, refused to accept the money, because doing so might acknowledge the validity of a status they rejected; in fact, they never recognized the sovereignty of the Italian state at all. An infallible Pope, who maintains earth’s only direct line to God, could not allow himself to be subject to the will of any other mortal; unlike every other religious leader on the planet, the Pope insisted on the need to govern all aspects of his own earthly kingdom. So the standoff continued, Pope after Pope, even though the government scrupulously adhered to its policy of non-interference in spiritual affairs – “a free Church in a free state,” as the Italian statesman Cavour had put it. Even the Pope admitted when the Lateran treaty was ultimately signed that “For the last sixty years the Vatican has in fact governed without any special complications.”

In 1922, Benito Mussolini’s Fascist Party seized power in Italy. Not through free elections, as Hitler later did, but through the threat of a violent uprising that caused a timid government to buckle. Mussolini had never been terribly religious; in 1908 he had dismissed priests as “black microbes who are as fatal to mankind as tuberculosis germs,” and he later wrote a scurrilous novel called The Cardinal’s Mistress. In 1910 he introduced a resolution urging members of his party to “avoid religious marriage and the baptism of their children.” As recently as 1920 he railed against what he called the “rival Vaticans” of Rome and Moscow. “We are the heretics of both religions. We have torn to pieces all the revealed truths, we have spat upon all the dogmas, rejected all the paradises, scoffed at all the charlatans – red, white and black – who market miraculous drugs to give happiness to mankind.”

Nonetheless, his coup was quietly backed by the Church, which bet that Fascism’s drive for lockstep “unity” as the ultimate goal of social organization would result in the Church being united in rather than squeezed out. The Church even caused Italy’s Catholic political party to disband rather than to oppose Mussolini.

The Church guessed right. One of Mussolini’s first acts was to re-install crucifixes in classrooms and courtrooms that had been removed during Italy’s short-lived attempt to separate Church and state. In 1926, secret negotiations commenced over a series of agreements that ultimately included a “treaty” in which Italy would recognize the 109 acre Vatican City as an independent country, a concordat establishing Catholicism as Italy’s official religion and granting the Church enormous power, and a financial “settlement” in which the taxpayers of Italy forked over millions of lire, equivalent to well over $1 billion in today’s money, to soothe the Pope’s anguish over the loss of his lands. Over half the price was paid in bonds rather than in cash, to keep the Church dependent on future government willingness to honor the arrangement.

The financial settlement was the most galling aspect of the deal. The people of central Italy had revolted successfully against a monarch claiming to rule by divine right, exactly as the people of the North American colonies had revolted successfully against another monarch in 1776. Did it ever dawn on George Washington, et al. that it might be fair to pay a billion dollars to George III to compensate him for his loss? For that matter, did the Church ever contemplate reimbursing the government of Italy for having appropriated the Papal States in the first place based on a forged document? Mussolini knew that Italian taxpayers were simply bribing the Church to support his Fascist unity; only by eliminating all dissent at home could he move forward with his dream to re-create a Roman empire.

As it turned out, the sovereign independence of Vatican City has been of interest to more than just stamp collectors. Under the leadership of one Bernardino Nogara, the Vatican Bank that was capitalized with the proceeds of Mussolini’s payments became one of the major forces in Italian finance, owning several banks, munitions factories, and even Italy’s largest manufacturer of contraceptive devices that were officially banned by the Church. Cardinal Spellman exaggerated only slightly when he claimed that “Next to Jesus Christ, the greatest thing that has happened to the Catholic Church is Bernardino Nogara.” It didn’t take long to figure out that a Bank located on “sovereign” Vatican soil was regulated by no one other than the Pope, and could thus engage with impunity in activities that would be illegal anywhere else: evasion of currency expatriation laws, laundering of drug money, and by the 1970s securities frauds that would have made Enron executives blush. Whenever an American or Italian prosecutor would follow a money trail that led to the Bank, the investigation would have to stop, because no one other than the Pope had the right to inspect the Bank’s records. Some prosecutors who seemed to be closing in on the truth were gunned down on the streets. David Yallop’s book In God’s Name describes the highly suspicious circumstances surrounding the death of Pope John Paul I after only 33 days on the job, which Yallop portrays as a murder to prevent the Pope from making changes at the Bank. No prosecutor has ever been able to investigate that incident, either, because it occurred on Vatican soil. Had Italian law applied, there would at least have been an autopsy.

Mussolini, of course, foresaw none of this. What he saw was that if he was going to create a totalitarian state to replace liberal pluralism, he either had to crush the Church or to co-opt it. Co-opting it was easier.

When the Lateran Treaty was signed 80 years ago last Wednesday, the Archbishop of Quebec claimed that “This historic event, prepared by the providential meeting of a great minister with a great Pope, can only augment the prestige of the Papacy and favor the expansion of Catholicism.” The Pope announced that “We have given back God to Italy, and Italy to God.” According to a shrewd German observer named Adolf Hitler, “The fact that the Curia is now making its peace with Fascism shows that the Vatican trusts the new political realities far more than it did the former liberal democracy, with which it could not come to terms.” The French press gloomily agreed with Hitler’s assessment, warning that the agreements represented “the alliance of the two Romes against the France of 1789.”

The treaties put Catholic indoctrination back into the public schools, recognizing the right of the Catholic bishops to remove any government-paid teacher of religion at will. Suspended priests were banned from all employment that would put them in contact with the public. Priests were exempted not only from military service and taxes, but even from jury duty; priests who committed crimes could be punished only by the Church, not by the state.


Mussolini also used tax money to pay for the salaries of the clergy and the repair of church buildings. When you pay for something, of course, you own it; the treaty made it clear that the Church could not appoint a bishop without advance approval of the Italian government. This power was critical in Mussolini’s eyes. “In the Italian State,” he bragged, “the Church is not sovereign, it is not even free.”

The only serious dispute after the signing of the Treaty involved Catholic Action, the network of labor and youth organizations maintained by the Church in its effort to permeate every sphere of human activity with Catholic thinking. Mussolini, though wanted Italians to think like Fascists, not like Catholics, and sicced his goons onto Catholic Action offices, meetings, and processions. After resisting for a time, the Church finally knuckled under; Catholic Action agreed to stop pursuing trade union or other political ends and limit itself strictly to religious devotions, while removing opponents of Fascism from its leadership positions.

The Church was amply rewarded for its docility. The Freemasons, the principal organization advocating separation of Church and State, was formally abolished and over a hundred Masonic officials were informally assassinated. Protestantism had never been prominent in Italy, but the 135,000 Protestants who spoiled Italy’s absolute religious unity were monitored, harassed, and systematically prevented from proselytizing. The American Catholic Monsignor Ryan cited these policies as a shining example of “Truth having rights, and error none.” Or as the Pope put it in 1932, “In this conflict, there is really question of the fundamental problem of the universe and of the most important decision proposed to man’s free will. For God or against God: this once more is the alternative that shall decide the destinies of all mankind in politics, in finance, in morals, in the sciences and arts, in the State, in civil and domestic society.”

Dictatorship only works when the public reveres the dictator. In Italy and around the world, the Catholic Church did everything it could to promote that reverence. The Pope called Mussolini “the man sent by Providence,” and the Cardinal of Milan referred to him as “the new Constantine.” The Bishop of Cleveland called him the “Man of Destiny,” and Cardinal O’Connell of Boston, who received a high Fascist decoration, exalted him as “a genius in the field of government, given to Italy by God.” Catholic newspapers filled their pages with official propaganda against democracy and praise for the Italian warlike spirit, reminding the faithful that Jesus himself had said “I have not come to bring peace, but a sword.” Fascism permeated Italian religious life down to the smallest detail: the protocol of Catholic processions was modified to match that of Fascist parades, Catholic publications displayed the year of the regime alongside that of the Christian era, and virtually every bishop’s pronouncement and sermon recited obsequious praise for the Duce, not just as a head of government but as a pioneer of civilization’s renewal.

If imitation is the sincerest form of flattery, then the Church’s social teaching flattered Mussolini as well. A 1931 encyclical on “Reconstructing the Social Order” advocated an authoritarian, corporate state as a solution for the world’s economic ills. Advancing an economic program strikingly similar to Fascism, it denounced socialism explicitly, and called for an authoritarian labor movement to combat the left. Singling out Mussolini’s corporative organizations that prohibited all strikes and lockouts, the Pope said: “Little reflection is required to perceive the advantage of the institution thus summarily described; peaceful collaboration of the classes, repression of Socialist organizations and efforts, the moderating influence of a special ministry.”

The reason why Mussolini was so insistent on totalitarian unity at home was to strengthen Italy’s hand abroad. The Church cooperated as eagerly as it knew how. Prior to the Lateran Treaty, the Church had made nice to Soviet Russia, apparently hoping that the demise of the Russian Orthodox Church would create a vacuum it could fill. It sent missionaries to aid in Russian famine relief, and even spoke highly of the “Living Church” movement invented by the Bolsheviks in 1922 to provide a pro-government alternative to the Orthodox Church. The Church’s Soviet initiative may or may not have been naïve; in any case, after aligning with Mussolini, the Vatican’s rhetoric became passionately anti-Bolshevik.

Mussolini sought to break up Yugoslavia by sponsoring Croatian terrorists, who assassinated the Yugoslav king and who launched a Bay of Pigs style invasion from Italian soil. The Church fanned the flames with a stream of invective against the Yugoslav government for its alleged oppression of Croat Catholics. Catholic youth were even forbidden from participating in the Yugoslav national youth organization, because it lacked sufficient religious content.

Mussolini also sought to extend Italian influence over predominantly Muslim Albania by establishing Italian-controlled technical schools and other cultural institutions there. When Albania’s king responded by closing the technical schools and Catholic schools as well, Mussolini erupted. The king backed down and offered a compromise in which the technical schools would be reopened and the Italian language would be made compulsory in all secondary schools. Not good enough, replied Mussolini; the Catholic schools had to be reopened as well. The standoff continued until Mussolini invaded and conquered Albania in 1939, paving the way for the reopening of the Catholic schools.

Mussolini’s most famous foreign adventure, though, was his invasion of Ethiopia in 1935. The Church could barely contain its enthusiasm; the Cardinal of Milan crowed that “On the plains of Ethiopia, the Italian Standard carries forward in triumph the Cross of Christ, … and opens the way for the missionaries of the Gospel.” The Bishop of Cremona chimed in: “The blessing of God be upon these soldiers who, on African soil, will conquer new and fertile lands for the Italian genius, thereby bringing to them Roman and Christian culture. May Italy stand once again as the Christian mentor to the whole world.” The Archbishop of Torano exclaimed that “The war against Ethiopia should be considered as a holy war, a crusade” that would “open Ethiopia, a country of infidels and schismatics, to the expansion of the Catholic Faith.” On a specially-proclaimed “Day of Faith” priests turned over their offertory collections to support the war.

Catholic political parties around the world vigorously supported Mussolini’s crusade, and opposed the League of Nations sanctions against it. Church support never wavered when the army started using poison gas after encountering unexpectedly strong Ethiopian opposition, nor when it executed 30,000 prisoners after a failed attempt to assassinate the military governor. The war ultimately took over three quarters of a million Ethiopian lives. Neither did the Church have any official comment when Mussolini adopted his “Manifesto of Race” in 1938, banning both Jews and Africans from the professions and subjecting their property to confiscation.

After Italy attacked France in 1940, Italian bishops enthusiastically wired Mussolini their pious hope that he would “crown the unfailing victory of our arms by planting the Italian flag over the Holy Sepulcher.” In November, 1941, Italy conferred the title of “prince” on the Pope’s nephews.

A best-selling 1994 book by John Cornwell characterized Pius XII as “Hitler’s Pope” and made a case for Vatican complicity in the Jewish Holocaust. Cornwell’s argument is weak, and undermines the legitimate case that can be made against the Church’s promotion of Fascism. Hitler and Pius XII actually detested one another, and despite his anti-Semitism Pius in fact acted to save the lives of thousands of Jews in Rome. Whether a vocal opposition to the Holocaust would have done more good than harm is debatable and unprovable. What is not nearly as debatable is that Mussolini bought the Roman Catholic Church outright, which responded with grateful cooperation in all his despicable schemes.


Originally published 2009-02-14

Source: God Experts

Origins of images: Facebook, Twitter, Wikimedia, Wikipedia, Flickr, Google, Imageinjection & Pinterest.

Read our Disclaimer/Legal Statement!

Donate to Support Us

We would like to ask you to consider a small donation to help our team keep working. We accept no advertising and rely only on you, our readers, to keep us digging the truth on history, global politics and international relations.

READ MORE!
George H.W. Bush, the CIA and a Case of State-Sponsored Terrorism
"If the American people ever find out what we have done, they would chase us down the street and lynch us" George H.W. Bush, 1992 In early fall of 1976, after a Chilean government assassin had killed a Chilean dissident and an American woman with a car bomb in Washington, D.C., George H.W. Bush’s CIA leaked a false report clearing Chile’s military dictatorship and pointing the FBI in the wrong direction. The bogus CIA assessment, spread through Newsweek magazine and other U.S. media outlets, was planted despite CIA’s now admitted awareness at the time that Chile was participating in Operation Condor, a cross-border campaign ...
READ MORE
Kosovo Albanian Leader of Islamic Caliphate Units Worked for NATO
Kosovo Albanian Jihadist leader who led the troops of the Islamic Caliphate (IS) into Falluja worked for NATO and Afghanistan, reports say. The 24-year old Kosovo Albanian Muslim, Lavdrim Muhaxheri from city of Kacanik, worked at NATOs Camp Bondsteel facility of Serbia’s occupied province of Kosovo. It is unclear what his function at Bondsteel was. Muhaxheri was also an activist for the official Islamic Community inside Kosovo which is the unofficial political arm of the separatist Albanians who enjoy wide support from Washington. In 2013, Muhaxheri is pictured in various situations for the Islamic Community in Kosovo. Muhaxheri also belonged to a ...
READ MORE
Hillary Comes Out as the War Party Candidate
On June 2 (2016), a few days before the California primary, Hillary Clinton gave up trying to compete with Bernie Sanders on domestic policy. Instead, she zeroed in on the soft target of Donald Trump’s most “bizarre rants” in order to present herself as experienced and reasonable. Evidently taking her Democratic Party nomination for granted, she is positioning herself as the perfect candidate for hawkish Republicans. Choosing to speak in San Diego, home base of the U.S. Pacific Fleet, on a platform draped with 19 American flags and preceded by half an hour of military marching music, Hillary Clinton was certain ...
READ MORE
Hypocrisy
Paris vs. Donbass Read our Disclaimer/Legal Statement! Donate to Support Us We would like to ask you to consider a small donation to help our team keep working. We accept no advertising and rely only on you, our readers, to keep us digging the truth on history, global politics and international relations.   Save
READ MORE
Europe Between Kosovization and Jihadization
Today the Old (dying out) Continent is under multi-faced crises pressure some of them having older roots but the others are product of current political decisions and moves by the European decision makers (and those who are behind them across the Ocean). The European oldest and mostly painful crisis-problem is a biological declination of the whole continent what from the economic point of view means, at least for the western countries, an import of a huge number of the „outsiders“ in order just to keep the same level of the economic production and national GDP. This solution of course produce as ...
READ MORE
Criticism of Israeli Policy is not Anti-Semitic
I was provoked to write this discussion of what is and what isn’t anti-Semitism by an article in Ha’aretz on the “controversy” created by the awarding of the 2018 Nobel Prize in Chemistry to George P. Smith. According to the reporting, Smith is not only a brilliant scientist whose work has helped lead to the creation of new drugs that can treat cancer and a range of autoimmune diseases, he is also an outspoken supporter of Palestinian rights and a critic of Israeli policies. The Ha’aretz piece notes that Smith has long been “a target of pro-Israel groups” and is listed ...
READ MORE
The Other Side of John McCain
As the Cold War entered its final act in 1985, journalist Helena Cobban participated in an academic conference at an upscale resort near Tucson, Arizona, on U.S.-Soviet interactions in the Middle East. When she attended what was listed as the “Gala Dinner with keynote speech”, she quickly learned that the virtual theme of the evening was, “Adopt a Muj.” “I remember mingling with all of these wealthy Republican women from the Phoenix suburbs and being asked, ‘Have you adopted a muj?” Cobban told me. “Each one had pledged money to sponsor a member of the Afghan mujahedin in the name ...
READ MORE
Bismarck, the United States and the Pomeranian Grenadier
All of the Balkans, legendary German Reichskanzler (Imperial Chancellor) Otto von Bismarck famously said, were not worth the bones of a single Pomeranian grenadier. And Bismarck, a Prussian landowner or junker had nothing but amused contempt for Pomeranian grenadiers who were regarded as a standing joke in the German Army. In 1890, brash, young new German Emperor Wilhelm II fired Bismarck after 28 years as minister-president of Prussia and then first Imperial Chancellor of Germany. He abandoned the priority policy of maintaining warm ties and close communications with Russia that Bismarck had always followed and scrapped the Dreikaiserbund, the League of ...
READ MORE
The U.S. has Installed in 2014 a Neo-Nazi Government in Ukraine
This article first published in March 2014 at the very outset of the Ukraine crisis explains the nature of the Kiev proxy regime. we are dealing with a Neo-Nazi government supported by “Western democracy” and the “international community”.  According to the New York Times, “The United States and the European Union have embraced the revolution here as another flowering of democracy, a blow to authoritarianism and kleptocracy in the former Soviet space.” ( After Initial Triumph, Ukraine’s Leaders Face Battle for Credibility,  NYTimes.com, March 1, 2014, emphasis added). “Flowering Democracy, Revolution”?  The grim realities are otherwise. What is a stake is a ...
READ MORE
The Vatican has Never REALLY Apologised For Any of its Crimes
When it comes to ‘apologising’ for genocides, which it either directly instigated or facilitated through tactical support, the Vatican is a conjurer adept in sleight of words and institutions. You are made to believe that the Vatican has changed; that the Vatican has apologised but then you go through what has been actually said officially and by whom, and you realise that nothing has changed. Take for example the absolutely safe sounding name for one of the oldest congregations in the Vatican — ‘Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith’. That is the modern name. The original name? ‘Supreme Sacred Congregation ...
READ MORE
Timeline: Israel’s anti-Palestinian Laws since 1948
2006-Present 07 February 2018: Israel advances a plan to build a walkway though the Mount of Olives in East Jerusalem to connect two settler residential compounds in the Palestinian At-Tur neighbourhood 07 February 2018: During a Knesset report on the policy of refusing to return the bodies of Palestinians killed by Israeli forces to their families for burial, officials are urged to ‘throw it into the sea’, ‘we should not return bodies. We should demolish homes’, others say 05 February 2018: A number of Israeli politicians, including coalition government members, call for ‘practical moves’ to be taken to annex settlements in the occupied West Bank while Donald ...
READ MORE
Seal in lobby at CIA headquarters in Langley, Virginia, USA
US-backed forces overthrow Goulart in Brazil (1964)  Left-wing nationalist Joao Goulart became the democratically elected president of Brazil in September 1961, setting alarm bells clattering in the liberal Kennedy administration. Goulart began implementing structural reforms in the massive resource-rich South American country, that would help integrate the general population into society. (1)  The United States was loathe to sit helplessly by as this movement came within “our hemisphere”, as President John F. Kennedy described it. Goulart, also known as “Jango”, was hostile toward US capitalist democracy that seeks to primarily serve elite powers. Shortly before his death, Kennedy had been preparing the groundwork to oust Goulart, ...
READ MORE
The Real “Butcher of the Balkans” is the NATO
More than 20 years after the Srebrenica massacre, Bosnian Serb General Ratko Mladić was found guilty of war crimes by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia this past November. Along with Mladić, the ICTY convicted the other so-called “Butcher of Bosnia”, the Bosnian Serb and former Republika Sprska leader Radovan Karadžić in 2016. Meanwhile, it fully exonerated the Bosnian Muslim army commander Naser Orić of similar charges which outraged the people of Serbia. Yet, it was the same court that posthumously exonerated former Serbian President Slobodan Milošević in 2016. If you weren’t aware of the latter, it’s because it ...
READ MORE
Arms Transfers to Saudi Arabia
Read our Disclaimer/Legal Statement! Donate to Support Us We would like to ask you to consider a small donation to help our team keep working. We accept no advertising and rely only on you, our readers, to keep us digging the truth on history, global politics and international relations.
READ MORE
The Skripal Affair – Another False Flag in NATO Litany to Criminalize Russia
If we start from a premise which understands that Britain and its NATO allies are capable of mounting false flag events in Syria with chemical weapons, then it is entirely possible that British secret services carried out a similar propaganda stunt in England with regard to former Russian double agent Sergei Skripal. We also need to bear in mind that British state intelligence agencies are plausibly running a covert assassination program targeting Russian exiles living in Britain – for the purpose of incriminating Moscow. Over the past two decades, more than a dozen Russian dissidents have met untimely deaths while residing in England, including ...
READ MORE
Croatian Ministers Salute Criminals and Dishonour the Dead
Last week was marked by the moral acrobatics of two Croatian ministers – War Veterans’ Minister Tomo Medved and Defence Minister Damir Krsticevic – who publicly endorsed two convicted Croatian war criminals, Tomislav Mercep and Mirko Norac. A WWII Independent State of Croatia in which 700.000 Serbs were brutally killed Croatian news site Index reported last week that Mercep, who is serving a prison sentence, spent a total of 45 days at a spa instead of in jail this year and last year. As Mercep is a Croatian war veteran, Medved said he vouched for him as worthy recipient of the spa ...
READ MORE
Operation Barbarossa: The 75th Anniversary of the Nazi Invasion of the Soviet Union
Seventy-five years ago Adolf Hitler launched the biggest and most destructive military campaign in history when three million German and allied troops invaded the Soviet Union along a 1,000-mile front. Operation Barbarossa – the codename for the German invasion of Russia - was no ordinary military campaign: it was an ideological and racist war, a war of destruction and extermination that aimed to kill Jews, enslave the Slavic peoples and destroy communism. The result was a war in which 25 million Soviet citizens died, including a million Jews, executed by the SS in 1941-1942 – an action which became the template ...
READ MORE
Ukraine Provocation in the Black Sea is Directed Against Russia
Ukraine is a virtual US colony – the way it’s been since the Obama regime’s February 2014 coup, replacing democratic governance with fascist tyranny in Europe’s heartland. Ukraine shares a near-1,500 mile land and sea border with the Russian Federation, the longest Western frontier with the country. The regime running things is a hotbed of militarized extremism, waging war on its own people, committing appalling human rights abuses – with full support and encouragement from Washington and key NATO countries. Stop NATO’s Rick Rozoff earlier explained that Ukraine is “the decisive linchpin in plans by the US and its NATO allies to effect ...
READ MORE
70 Years of Disinformation: How the CIA Funded Opinion Magazines in Europe
When an intelligence agency arranges to disseminated fake news it is called “disinformation” and it is a subset of what is referred to as covert action, basically secret operations run in a foreign country to influence opinion or to disrupt the functioning of a government or group that is considered to be hostile. During the Cold War, disinformation operations were run by many of the leading players in both the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and in the opposition Warsaw Pact. Sometimes the activity and the sponsorship were clearly visible, as when Radio Free Europe and Radio Moscow would exchange barbs about ...
READ MORE
Mass Exodus from Muslim Kosovo into Europe: Did US Play a Role in Creating the Crisis?
Editor:  Little did I know when I posted a short news story about the ‘invasion of Hungary’ last evening that the situation in Kosovo has become untenable and a mass exodus was so advanced.  ‘Pungentpeppers’ has again pulled many threads together to give us the big picture of what is happening in Eastern Europe.  Is the US responsible?  An Austrian political leader says so! Mass exodus from Muslim Kosovo into Europe ~150,000 or more Kosovars on the move since summer ~Hungarian Police catch 1,000 Kosovars daily – a small fraction of the total ~Hungarian mayor calls for fence as Kosovars overwhelm village ~Austrian politician blames ...
READ MORE
George H.W. Bush, the CIA and a Case of State-Sponsored Terrorism
Kosovo Albanian Leader of Islamic Caliphate Units Worked for NATO
Hillary Comes Out as the War Party Candidate
Hypocrisy
Europe Between Kosovization and Jihadization
Criticism of Israeli Policy is not Anti-Semitic
The Other Side of John McCain
Bismarck, the United States and the Pomeranian Grenadier
The U.S. has Installed in 2014 a Neo-Nazi Government in Ukraine
The Vatican has Never REALLY Apologised For Any of its Crimes
Timeline: Israel’s anti-Palestinian Laws since 1948
Forgotten “Anniversaries” of U.S. Sponsored Military Coups against Democracy
The Real “Butcher of the Balkans” is the NATO
Arms Transfers to Saudi Arabia
The Skripal Affair – Another False Flag in NATO Litany to Criminalize Russia
Croatian Ministers Salute Criminals and Dishonour the Dead
Operation Barbarossa: The 75th Anniversary of the Nazi Invasion of the Soviet Union
Ukraine Provocation in the Black Sea is Directed Against Russia
70 Years of Disinformation: How the CIA Funded Opinion Magazines in Europe
Mass Exodus from Muslim Kosovo into Europe: Did US Play a Role in Creating the Crisis?
Policraticus

Written by Policraticus

SHORT LEGAL DISCLAIMER: The website’s owner & editor-in-chief has no official position on any issue published at this website. The views of the authors presented at this website do not necessarily coincide with the opinion of the owner & editor-in-chief of the website. The contents of all material (articles, books, photos, videos…) are of sole responsibility of the authors. The owner & editor-in-chief of this website is not morally, scientifically or legally responsible for any inaccurate or incorrect statement in the contents of all material found on this website. The owner & editor-in-chief of this website is not responsible for the content of external internet sites. No advertising, government or corporate funding for the functioning of this website. The owner & editor-in-chief and authors are not morally, scientifically or legally responsible for any inaccurate or incorrect statement in the text and material found on the website www.global-politics.eu

Website: http://www.global-politics.eu