On the Origins of Proto-Croats and Proto-Serbs

Share

Hits: 766

Contemporary historiography and the Slavonic studies upon the question of the ethnolinguistic origin of the Croats and the Serbs more and more incline on the side of those authors who support the linguistic theory of the Indo-Sarmatian (the Iranian) origins of proto-Croats and proto-Serbs.

The Indo-European Iranian origin

According to this contemporary explanation, Croats and Serbs were the people of the Iranian (the Sarmatian) origin, who migrated into the Balkans in the 7th century and subjected the Slavs there. However, in the course of time, they became totally slavicized (like proto-Turkic Bulgars who were settled on the Balkans between the Danube River and the Balkan Range) but gave their own ethnic name to the Balkan Slavic subjects. At least from the beginning of the 9th century, both Croats and Serbs are clearly a Slavic people. For those authors, linguists proved that words Croat and Serb are not of the Slavic language at all. They believe that name Croat is similar to the Iranian-Sarmatian place name Choroathos, on the lower Don River, or that name Croat originated in the Iranian Chrovatosa, a prominent chieftain who gave his own personal name to the tribe (people) ruled by him.

Some scholars argue that the Iranian name Croat can be found as a personal name in the inscriptions from Tanais from the 2nd and 3rd centuries, or that words haurvatar means in the Iranian – “cattle-breeder”, and huurvatha – “friend”. In addition, there are two Greek inscriptions in the area of the Azov Sea around the mouth of the Don River related to the personal names – Horóathos and Horúathos, which are considered to be of the Iranian-Sarmatian origin. Around the time of Jesus Christ, there was the Iranian-Sarmatian tribe on the lower Don River that was known to the Greek geographers as Serboi. In the 10th century, one Arab geographer noted a Sarban tribe in the Caucasus. These two tribes are clearly not of the Slavic origin.

As a matter of fact, many ethnic Slavs have participated in the armies led by the Iranian-Sarmatian Croats and Serbs and have migrated to the Balkans with their Iranian-Sarmatian military leaders and lords. The sources are speaking in this matter about Indo-European Slaveni – a Slavic people living north of the Danube River in the 5th and 6th centuries which basically provided the crucial part of the manpower which occupied the Balkan Peninsula in the 6th and early 7th centuries (more precisely, from around 580 to 626, according to the Byzantine sources). Assimilation, i.e. Slavization, of the Iranian-Sarmatian “Croats” and “Serbs” started already beyond the Carpathian Mountains. The Iranian-Sarmatian Croats and Serbs have been relatively few in number, but as warrior horsemen, they became greatly superior over conquered Slavs. They came to the Balkans in the second wave of the Slavic settlement on the peninsula where they met and subjugated already settled Slavic tribes from the first wave of migration to the Balkans. The newcomers, led by the Iranian-Sarmatian Croats and Serbs, provided a general name for all Slavs under their sway, which are known today as the ethnic Croats and Serbs. In other words, since the Slavs were the vast majority, and as the Iranian-Sarmatian Croats and Serbs intermarried and mixed with them, in the course of time the conquerors came to speak Slavic too and ultimately the Slavic language they came to speak and which had been spoken by the earlier arriving Slavs (from the first migration) came to be named after the Iranian-Sarmatian newcomers (from the second migration to the Balkans). Finally, this process of assimilation was identical with that one of the Turkic Bulgars who conquered the Seven Slavic tribes on the territory of present-day North Bulgaria. They came to be slavicized in the course of time but provided the ethnic name for the Slavic people, language, and state established in Bulgaria. Those Seven Slavic Tribes have been a group of Slavic tribes who formed a kind of political confederation before the Turkic Bulgars crossed the Danube River in 671 (under the Khan Asparuh) and occupied them. However, the Slavic tribe Severi in present-day North Bulgaria succeeded even after the arrival of the Turkic Bulgars to maintain considerable sovereignty in the 8th century.

In general, the early medieval Serbs and Croats were a people of most probably Iranian ethnolinguistic origin, who migrated into what was the territory of ex-Yugoslavia at the turn of the 7th century and subjected the autochtonous Slavs settled there. In the course of time, they became slavicized but gave their ethnic names to the subjected Slavic people and its language. Both proto-Croats and proto-Serbs became at least from the 9th century, if not earlier, clearly a Slavic people. According to the Byzantine source of the Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus (913−959) De administrando imperio, the Balkan Croats arrived from the territory of White Croatia north of the Carpathians.

There is an opinion by many experts in the Slavic studies that ancient Sarmatians, Scythians, and Antes were the Slavs and, therefore, proto-Croats and proto-Serbs maybe parts of them. The Scythians were an Iranian people which dominated Central Asian steppes up to the Caucasus and the Danube River during the first millennium B.C. The Sarmatians also have been an Iranian people originating in Central Asian steppes but settled in the territory north of the Danube River in the 3rd−5th centuries. The Antes were an ancient Iranian tribe but in the course of time came into contact with the Byzantine Empire by absorbing the Slavs and, therefore, became the Slavic speaking population. They came from Central Asian steppes in the 5th century occupying the territories of present-day East Romania and Moldova (Bessarabia). In addition, most probably that ancient Balkan Illyrians of the Indo-European origin, dominating the Central and West Balkans, have been, in fact, autochtonous Slavs (but not Albanians) of South-East Europe. They became conquered by Rome before the Slavic (Croat and Serb) second migration.

The Turkic peoples at South-East Europe

The Turkic peoples have been a linguistic group of people originating in Central Asia whose majority swept across Central Asian steppes. Some of them migrated as far as the present-day Great Hungarian Plain (Hungarians or Magyars). They had historically a great influence on the Balkan Serbs and Croats as raiders or even as overlords of the Slavs settled on the Balkan Peninsula. For instance, the Croats became governed by the Hungarians from 1102 to 1918. The Turkic people being in direct interaction with the Balkan Serbs and Croats were the authentic Bulgars, Avars, Khazars, Pechenegs, Cumans, and Ghuzz (Uze). It is important to mention that in the Byzantine sources the term Turk was usually used for the Hungarians (Magyars), although they have not been really a Turkic people (as they are of the Mongol origin). The Bulgars could be found it their original homeland north of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. Some of them in the second half of the 7th century migrated across the Danube River into present-day northern part of Bulgaria between the Danube River and the Mt. Balkans (ancient Mt. Haemus) where they conquered already settled Slavs there. However, by the early 9th century the Turkic Bulgars had become fully slavicized but their ethnic name was given to the Slavic people and their language. Nevertheless, in the sources from the 10th century onward the term Bulgarian refers to a Slavic people.

 

Dr. Vladislav B. Sotirović

www.global-politics.eu

sotirovic@global-politics.eu

© Vladislav B. Sotirović 2018

 

Bibliography

Božić I., Ćirković S., Ekmečić M., Dedijer V., 1973: Istorija Jugoslavije. Beograd.

Conte F., 1986: Les Slaves. Aux origines, des civilisations d’ Europe centrale et orientale (VI–XIII siècles). Paris.

Fine J., 1994: The Early Medieval Balkans. A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century. Ann Arbor.

Gregoire H., 1944–1945: L’origine et le nom des Croates et des Serbes, Byzantion, XVII. 88–118.

Macan T., 1992: Povijest hrvatskoga naroda. Zagreb.

Pavličević D., 2000: Povijest Hrvatske. Drugo, izmijenjeno i prošireno izdanje. Zagreb.

Perić I., 1997: Povijest Hrvata. Zagreb.

Shaffarik J. P., 1872: Uber die Abknuft der Slawen. Ofen.

Stipčević A., 1989: Iliri. Zagreb.

Vasiliev A. A., 1952: History of the Byzantine Empire 324−1453. Wisconsine.

Бајић Ј., 2003: Блажени Јероним, Солинска црква и Србо-Далмати. Шабац.

Византијски извори, I−III, 1966: Београд.

Влајић-Земљанички Б., 1999: Срби староседеоци Балкана и Паноније у војним и цивилним догађајима са Римљанима и Хеленима од I до X века. Београд.

Деретић И. Ј., Антић П. Д., Јарчевић М. С., 2009: Измишљено досељавање Срба. Београд.

Јиречек К., 1922: Историја Срба. Београд.

Јовић М., 2003: Срби пре Срба. Краљево.

Луковић-Пјановић О., 1990: Срби, народ најстарији. I−II. Београд.

Милановић М., 2011: Историјско порекло Срба. Друго допуњено и проширено издање. Београд.

Никић М., 2006: Порекло Срба Словена Скита. Београд.

Новаковић Р., 1995: Срби. Београд.

Пешић Р., 1995: Винчанско писмо. Београд.

Пипер П., 1998: Увод у славистику. 1. Београд.

Трбуховић В., 2006: Индоевропљани. Београд.

Ћоровић В., 1993: Историја Срба. Београд.

Serbian lands around 1200


Origins of images: Facebook, Twitter, Wikimedia, Wikipedia, Flickr, Google, Imageinjection & Pinterest.

Read our Disclaimer/Legal Statement!

Donate to Support Us

We would like to ask you to consider a small donation to help our team keep working. We accept no advertising and rely only on you, our readers, to keep us digging the truth on history, global politics and international relations.

[wpedon id=”4696″ align=”left”]

READ MORE!
The 1915−1916 Armenian Genocide: An Ideology, Course and Consequences
A massive destruction of the Ottoman (Orthodox Christian) Armenian population in 1915−1916 is probably the greatest atrocity committed during the WWI and for sure a first 20th century case of the genocide as up to 1.500.000 ethnic Armenians were executed by the Ottoman authorities and their collaborators (the Kurds). As a consequence, the survivors are scattered across the globe. Today it is already a century old event, but the issue of the 1915−1916 Armenian Genocide is undoubtedly still alive and divisive political issue firstly between the Armenians and the Turks[1] but also and among the western “liberal democracies” on the ...
READ MORE
A Croatian Role in the Destruction of Yugoslavia in the 1990s (I)
“Thousands joined a peaceful protest on Saturday in the Croatian town of Vukovar to express their anger at Croatian institutions for their “silence” over war crimes committed during the 1990s war” (Balkan Transitional Justice, 2018-10-13). The following essay is my constructive contribution to the above article. Preface On the occasion of more than two decades of the end of the civil war on the territory of ex-Yugoslavia (1991−1995), it is necessary to reassess the real causes and cardinal perpetuators of Yugoslavia’s internal and external bloody destruction. In the western scientific literature of the “liberal democracy” scholars (like by the journalists and policymakers as ...
READ MORE
Putin’s New World Order
Is Vladimir Putin the most popular Russian leader of all time? It certainly looks like it. In a recent survey conducted by the All-Russia Public Opinion Research Center,  Putin’s public approval rating soared to an eye-popping 86 percent, which is twice that of Obama’s when he left office in 2016.  And what’s more surprising is that Putin’s popularity has held up through a severe economic slump and nearly two decades in office. Unlike most politicians, whose shelf-life is somewhere between 4 to 8 years, the public’s admiration for Putin has only grown stronger over time. And the phenom is not limited to Russia either.  According to a recent survey by the pollster YouGov, “Putin is the third most admired man in Egypt, the fourth in China, ...
READ MORE
Greater (Islamic) Albania: United States Project against the Orthodox World?
Wednesday, December 5, 2012, the Albanian Prime Minister Sali Berisha advocated granting Albanian citizenship to all Albanians, wherever they reside. This statement was made during a visit of the city of Vlora where the independence of the Albanian state was declared, only 100 years ago. At the time Albania had just liberated itself from Ottoman rule.This declaration follows a separate statement, collective this time, that Sali Berisha had made with his Kosovar counterpart Hashim Thaci a few weeks ago, promising the union of all Albanians. The place was, I must say, well chosen since the vast majority of the inhabitants ...
READ MORE
The Balkans today
After the Russian military victory over the Ottoman Empire in the 1877−1878 Russo-Ottoman War it was signed the San Stefano Treaty between these two states on March 3rd, 1878. According to the treaty, a Greater “San Stefano” Bulgaria, under the direct protection by Russia, had to be established within the borders of the Ottoman Empire. However, an idea of “San Stefano Bulgaria” directly affected three Balkan nations: the Serbs, Greeks and Albanians as some of their ethnic and historical territories had to become part of a Greater Bulgaria. The “San Stefano Bulgaria” was projected by the Russian authorities to cover ...
READ MORE
The Empire Wants Ms. Hitllary Clinton, The Conqueror!
What a fine race it has become! Both Hilary Clinton and Donald Trump are competing in it as a who is the ‘tougher guy/gal’ in what could be easily described as a 21st Century Tarantino-style (or Scorsese-style) political pulp fiction gore. What they both utter, may often sound like some staged bluff: “Are you talking to me? Hey, there’s nobody else here… Are you talking to me?” But just think for a moment what would really happen if one of them sticks to his or her ‘promises’ and ‘principles’, after getting elected! (The bullets would be flying, the nukes exploding, and millions ...
READ MORE
Who are the Jews? Judaism vs Zionism
Real Semites are the Palestinians. Current Zionists Israelis genetically are not the Semites.They are the real anti Semitic people. Please world stop those anti Semitic warmongers Israeli Zionists!Origins of images: Facebook, Twitter, Wikimedia, Wikipedia, Flickr, Google, Imageinjection, Public Domain & Pinterest.Read our Disclaimer/Legal Statement!Donate to Support UsWe would like to ask you to consider a small donation to help our team keep working. We accept no advertising and rely only on you, our readers, to keep us digging the truth on history, global politics and international relations.[wpedon id="4696" align="left"]SaveSaveSaveSave
READ MORE
The Croatian National Revival Movement (1830–1847) and the Serbs (I)
Top personalities of the Croatian Revival MovementPreface This text investigates the question of relations between the Croatian national revival movement and the Serbs from 1830 to 1847. Special investigation attention is put on the problem of how the language influenced ethnonational group identity among the Croats and Serbs in Dalmatia, Croatia and Slavonia (the so-called Triune Kingdom) during the period of the Croatian national revival movement that was officially and not only formally named as the Illyrian Movement. This investigation is an attempt to reconstruct the mainstream of the politics by the leaders of the movement and their outlines on how ...
READ MORE
The Failure of US Democracy
I am now convinced that the Oligarchy that rules America intends to steal the presidential election. In the past, the oligarchs have not cared which candidate won as the oligarchs owned both. But they do not own Trump.Most likely you are unaware of what Trump is telling people as the media does not report it. A person who speaks like this:- is not endeared to the oligarchs.Who are the oligarchs?— Wall Street and the mega-banks too big to fail and their agent the Federal Reserve, a federal agency that put 5 banks ahead of millions of troubled American homeowners who ...
READ MORE
Clinton: Destroy Syria for Israel
A newly-released Hilary Clinton email confirmed that the Obama administration has deliberately provoked the civil war in Syria as the “best way to help Israel.”In an indication of her murderous and psychopathic nature, Clinton also wrote that it was the “right thing” to personally threaten Bashar Assad’s family with death.In the email, released by Wikileaks, then Secretary of State Clinton says that the “best way to help Israel” is to “use force” in Syria to overthrow the government.The document was one of many unclassified by the US Department of State under case number F-2014-20439, Doc No. C05794498, following the uproar ...
READ MORE
Have You been Brainwashed about Gaza?
It’s frightening. Unprincipled psychologists, in the service of a malignant regime, use sophisticated techniques in order to control the mind of a person from afar. The term “brainwashing” was born in 1950. It is a Chinese word (“xinao”, literally wash brain). Originally it served to describe a technique used – so it was claimed – by Chinese masterminds to manipulate the minds of American prisoners in the Korean War. They changed their unconscious mental processes and turned them into agents of sinister forces. Many books and movies purported to show how this works. For example, the classic film “The Manchurian Candidate” shows ...
READ MORE
Athens Massacre of 1944: Britain’s Dirty Secret of Winston Churchill
“I can still see it very clearly, I have not forgotten,” says Títos Patríkios. “The Athens police firing on the crowd from the roof of the parliament in Syntagma Square. The young men and women lying in pools of blood, everyone rushing down the stairs in total shock, total panic.”And then came the defining moment: the recklessness of youth, the passion of belief in a justice burning bright: “I jumped up on the fountain in the middle of the square, the one that is still there, and I began to shout: “Comrades, don’t disperse! Victory will be ours! Don’t leave. ...
READ MORE
A Liberal Democracy, a Market Capitalist Economy and the Permanent Wars
War is not an anomaly, nor an exception to the rule, it has always been with us and it might always be. Militarism and its practice in war are subcategories of waste (the harmful things we produce such as pollution and bombs) and domains of accumulation themselves. They are also prerequisites for the expansion of capital and its market economy. Much is done to portray war as an inherent attribute of human fallibility or an unintended consequence. However, mainstream concepts associated with the promotion of the market economy are weapons of the ruling class. They are all laced with poison. ...
READ MORE
Trump is Racist? What is About Obama!
Compare Donald Trump and Barack Obama: Trump bans people from Syria, Iraq, Libya, Yemen and Somalia but Obama bombed people from Syria, Iraq, Libya, Yemen and Somalia! The question is: Who is a bigger racist?Origins of images: Facebook, Twitter, Wikimedia, Wikipedia, Flickr, Google, Imageinjection, Public Domain & Pinterest.Read our Disclaimer/Legal Statement!Donate to Support UsWe would like to ask you to consider a small donation to help our team keep working. We accept no advertising and rely only on you, our readers, to keep us digging the truth on history, global politics and international relations.[wpedon id="4696" align="left"]
READ MORE
Putin is Defeating More than ISIS in Syria
Russia and its President, Vladimir Putin, a little more than a year ago, in July 2014 were the focus of attention in Europe and North America, accused, without a shred of forensic evidence, of shooting down an unarmed civilian Malaysian airliner over eastern Ukraine. The Russians were deemed out to restore the Soviet Union with their agreement to the popular referendum of Crimean citizens to annex into the Russian Federation and not Ukraine. Western sanctions were being thrown at Russia by both Washington and the EU. People spoke of a new Cold War. Today the picture is changing, and profoundly. ...
READ MORE
Lietuva Tėvine mūsų!
Origins of images: Facebook, Twitter, Wikimedia, Wikipedia, Flickr, Google, Imageinjection & Pinterest. Read our Disclaimer/Legal Statement! Donate to Support Us We would like to ask you to consider a small donation to help our team keep working. We accept no advertising and rely only on you, our readers, to keep us digging the truth on history, global politics and international relations. [wpedon id="4696" align="left"]
READ MORE
Breaking the Constitution: Lithuania Seeks the Permanent Presence of the U.S. Troops on its Territory
As it appears Lithuania expects major changes in the near future. Lithuanian Foreign Minister Linas Linkevičius was on an official visit to the United States of America from the 20 to the 24 of February 2017. During a visit he said that Lithuania seeks the permanent presence of United States troops in its territory."We have requested stationing of military forces in our country on a more permanent basis - not only rotational but also more permanent," the minister told BNS in the telephone interview from Washington D.C.Linas Linkevicius' call for the permanent presence of United States troops in Lithuania territory ...
READ MORE
Benny Morris’s Untenable Denial of the Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine
The Israeli historian Benny Morris has been very vocal of late in denying that Palestine was ethnically cleansed of Arabs in order for the “Jewish state” of Israel to be established. In a series of articles in the Israeli daily Haaretz, Morris has debated the question with several of his critics who contend that ethnic cleansing is precisely what occurred. Not so, argues Morris. So who’s right?It’s worth noting at the outset that, while such a debate exists in the Israeli media, the US media remains, as ever, absolutely silent on the matter. Americans who get their information about the ...
READ MORE
Tsarist Russia and the Balkans: A Brief Overview
The Balkan Peninsula, together with the region of South-East Europe, historically has been one of the most important focal points of Russian foreign policy, cultural influences and attempts to spread an ideology of the Orthodox solidarity and the Slavic reciprocity.[1] These ideas are common to almost all trends of Russian public life in the past and very much today too. After Russia lost the Great Crimean War of 1853–1856 she intensified its cultural influence in the region of South-East Europe for the purposes of beating Habsburg (Roman-Catholic) rivalry and to spread an idea of the Pan-Slavism in this part of Europe.[2] ...
READ MORE
Kosovo: The Spoils of War
The legal and diplomatic argumets for granting “Kosova” indepence, whether “supervised” or unsupervised, are totally spurious and unfounded. There is no basis in international law or international agreements or the UN Charter for dismembering Serbia by allowing a minority population to secede. The only argument is the argument of force, “the spoils of war”, seeing Kosovo as a spoil of war. This is the only “argument”. But since this is an unpalatable and unconvincing argument, it must be buttressed and camouflaged with the discredited and disproved “genocide” construct, which acts as a convenient obfuscating smokescreen. This argument runs as follows: ...
READ MORE
The 1915−1916 Armenian Genocide: An Ideology, Course and Consequences
A Croatian Role in the Destruction of Yugoslavia in the 1990s (I)
Putin’s New World Order
Greater (Islamic) Albania: United States Project against the Orthodox World?
The 1878 San Stefano Treaty and the Albanians
The Empire Wants Ms. Hitllary Clinton, The Conqueror!
Who are the Jews? Judaism vs Zionism
The Croatian National Revival Movement (1830–1847) and the Serbs (I)
The Failure of US Democracy
Clinton: Destroy Syria for Israel
Have You been Brainwashed about Gaza?
Athens Massacre of 1944: Britain’s Dirty Secret of Winston Churchill
A Liberal Democracy, a Market Capitalist Economy and the Permanent Wars
Trump is Racist? What is About Obama!
Putin is Defeating More than ISIS in Syria
Lietuva Tėvine mūsų!
Breaking the Constitution: Lithuania Seeks the Permanent Presence of the U.S. Troops on its Territory
Benny Morris’s Untenable Denial of the Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine
Tsarist Russia and the Balkans: A Brief Overview
Kosovo: The Spoils of War
FOLLOW US ON OUR SOCIAL PLATFORMS
Share
About Policraticus 1658 Articles
SHORT LEGAL DISCLAIMER: The website’s owner & editor-in-chief has no official position on any issue published at this website. The views of the authors presented at this website do not necessarily coincide with the opinion of the owner & editor-in-chief of the website. The contents of all material (articles, books, photos, videos…) are of sole responsibility of the authors. The owner & editor-in-chief of this website is not morally, scientifically or legally responsible for any inaccurate or incorrect statement in the contents of all material found on this website. The owner & editor-in-chief of this website is not responsible for the content of external internet sites. No advertising, government or corporate funding for the functioning of this website. The owner & editor-in-chief and authors are not morally, scientifically or legally responsible for any inaccurate or incorrect statement in the text and material found on the website www.global-politics.eu