The American Civil War (1861−1865) was a military conflict between the northern and the southern states of the USA which initially started as a political-economic revolt and desire for the independence by the southern states which created their own Confederacy not recognized by Washington. However, very soon the conflict was transformed into the war for the abolition of the slavery within the whole territory of the USA. In the first half of the 19th century, there was an increasing number of personalities mostly from the industrial northern states who called for the abolition of the slavery but the more agricultural southern states wanted the right for each state to decide whether to keep the slavery or not. The South as well as wanted individual states to have more power in their hands than the US’ federal government allowed and, therefore, the southern states became secessionists as they believe that the southern states should finally secede from the Union. As a result, eleven southern states created the independent Confederacy (the Confederate States of America) with Jefferson Davis as its President with the capital in Richmond (Virginia).
After the battle of Gettysburg in 1863, the Union’s President Abraham Lincoln made his famous „Gettysburg Address“ about democracy and late in the same year issued the „Emancipation Proclamation“ which made slavery illegal. After the war, which won the Union, it was thought that emancipation policy as well won within the whole country and that, therefore, the policy of segregation, apartheid, and discrimination of African American is finally over. However, many Southerners still had very bad feelings towards the North and did not want to end slavery and to stop with the discriminatory policy. Subsequently, it is now the fundamental question when in reality the ideas of emancipation, civil rights, democracy, and integration finally won in American society. Not for sure in 1865 but only a whole century later, even after the WWII, in the mid-1960s with the Civil Rights Movement. In other words, a whole century after the American Civil War ended the segregation, apartheid, disintegration, and discrimination on the racial bases were still in a practice in many (southern) states of the USA – something that was not imaginable in Europe even in its eastern „not democratic“ part of the countries of „Real Socialism“.
The Civil Rights Movement
The US’ Civil Rights Movement was the national campaign by African Americans fighting for equal rights with the whites and for the cancellation of de facto existing apartheid in the southern states even hundred years after the end of the Civil War. The movement was especially strong and influential in the 1950s and the 1960s. Their campaigns included economic boycotts (refusal to buy particular products), the political actions of Freedom Riders, and, particularly spectacular, a March to Washington led by Martin Luther King (1929−1968) in August 1963 (250.000 people) when he made his famous „I Have a Dream“ speech at the Lincoln Memorial. That was his personal vision of the USA as a society of equal rights. Ultimately, the Movement succeeded in causing the introduction of affirmative laws as there were the 1964 Civil Rights Act and the 1965 Voting Rights Act. These two affirmative acts changed the attitudes of many white Americans and, basically, ended the Civil War concerning the full social and political affirmation of African Americans.
The affirmative laws were followed by the affirmative action initiated as the US’ government policy by the US’ President Johnson in 1965 when he created the Office of Federal Contract Compliance and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Through these bureaus, affirmative action was designed to reduce social and racial inequalities in the US’ society by requiring all federal government contractors and public institutions to give consideration to racial minorities (and from 1971 to women).
The Movement became inspired by the case of Rosa Parks, who had defied a rule of segregation on the bus system in Montgomery (Alabama) when in December 1955 because of that she was arrested. The case caused a year-boycott of the entire system but further boycotts followed during the late 1950s and early 1960s. These boycotts became galvanized by Martin Luther King, who was a co-founder of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference and the Student Non-Violent Co-ordinating Committee. The charisma of Martin Luther King very much empowered the Civil Rights Movement through religion. At the beginning of the 1960s, there were students’ actions forcing desegregation of lunch counters, cinemas, supermarkets, libraries, and many other public facilities.
One of the most important successes of the Movement was the practice to publically and officially use a term „African American“ instead of „black“ as the latter was commonly understood by African Americans to be racially derogative. In other words, from the time of the Civil Rights Movement, it finally became usual in the US to use a term African American as a name for black Americans descended from Africans, especially those descended from American slaves. The term has become gradually more popular and politically more correct than „black“ as it avoided language that may offend a particular group. Today, about 12% of the US’ population are African Americans (or Afro-Americans).
The Freedom Riders
The Freedom Riders significantly participated in the US’ Movement for Civil Rights in the early 1960s. They were groups composed by both whites and African Americans from the northern states of the US who in 1961 rode together in buses in the Deep South as a protest against racial segregation (apartheid) on public transport. In fact, they were racially integrated groups of travelers who went south and there were around 3.600 arrests of them.
The Deep South is a term used to mark the most southern states of the South-East US: Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Lousiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, and East Texas. They were among the states which in 1861 had legalized slavery and left at that year the Union (the United States of America) by forming an independent Confederacy. They still a hundred years after the Civil War had racial problems and the people in those states are mostly conservative in their politics and religion.
Until the mid-1960s, the racial segregation in the Deep States was an every-day policy in practice. To remind ourselves, segregation is a policy of separating certain groups from the rest of the community, especially because of their racial background. In the USA, the policy of segregation or, de facto, apartheid, particularly in the southern states, denied African Americans their rights and forced them to use separate schools, restaurants, hotels, cinemas, etc. from those used by white people. From this point of view, there was no big difference between the South African system of legalized racial apartheid from the policy of segregation in the Deep South until the mid-1960s. However, as a result of the Civil Rights Movement, laws were passed in the 1950s and 1960s which greatly reduced segregation in the US’ society in the Deep South. This legal-political process is called desegregation or integration to which the Freedom Riders participated as well.
The first Freedom Riders were organized by the Congress of Racial Equality. They were often attacked by angry crowds of the whites. However, in November 1961 (on the hundred years anniversary of the beginning of the Civil War) the Interstate Commerce Commission legally ended segregation on buses. The Congress of Racial Equality (the CORE) is the US’ organization which supports equal social, economic and political rights for African Americans by peaceful and legal actions. The CORE was established in 1942 in Chicago by James Farmer and became influential and well known in the 1960s for encouraging African Americans to vote and for leading Freedom Riders into the Deep South.
The Civil Rights Acts
In the history of the USA, there were ten fundamental Civil Rights Acts, nine of which were passed from 1957 to 1991. Those Acts were aimed to equalize the political condition of African Americans with White Americans. The 1957 Act began the modern cycle by creating the Civil Rights Commission, the Civil Rights Division of the US’ Justice Department, and the procedure whereby federal court could enforce the voting rights of the US’ citizens against obstructions without jury trials of obstructers. Whereas before, White Americans who had prevented African Americans from voting were often acquitted by all-White juries. However, from 1957 onward voting-rights offenders were no longer tried by jury. The 1957 Act was soon followed by the 1960 Act which introduced criminal sanctions for racial violence and which reinforced voting-rights protection by the courts.
The 1964 Civil Rights Act
The landmark of civil rights legislation was the 1964 Civil Rights Act.
The 1964 Civil Rights Act was the US’s law which forced the US’s southern states (being the members of the Confederacy during the 1861−1865 Civil War) to:
Allow African Americans to enter public facilities like restaurants, hotels, cinemas, etc. which, up to that time, were exclusively reserved for white people only.
To end the practice of having separate areas for black and white people in theatres, train stations, buses, etc.
This legal Act was mostly the result of the Civil Rights Movement that was strongly supported by the 36th US’ President Lyndon B. Johnson (Democrat, 1963−1969). The act was the most far-reaching bill of its kind, forbidding racial discrimination in employment, education, or accommodation.
According to the act, the federal government acquired the power to bar racial segregation and discrimination in federally funded programs. Racial discrimination in employment was outlawed and an Equal Opportunities Commission was created in order to promote affirmative actions. The Act also benefited women, who were now protected by law from discrimination based on gender.
The act was followed next year by the Voting Rights Act.
The 1965 Voting Rights Act
The 1965 Voting Rights Act is a US’ law passed during the Civil Rights Movement, signed by President Lyndon B. Johnson. The Act implemented the 25th Amendment outlawing voting restrictions based on poll taxes and literacy tests, and which resulted directly in a threefold increase in African American registration in the southern states. The Act, in sum, made illegal a number of racially-based restrictions that had been used, mostly in the southern states, to keep African Americans from voting. These restrictions included, among other measures, a test of people’s ability to read and write. By this Act, the voting discrimination ended, at least from the legal point of view.
Nevertheless, in practice, non-political civil rights had to be more protected, as discrimination continued up today in areas like housing, employment, the law, and access to high-quality education.
As a matter of conclusion, the American Civil War, that is usually considered to be ended in 1865, in fact, according to the legal process of implementation of democratic civil rights, proclaimed by the US’ federal government during the war, ended only in 1965 with the Voting Rights Act. What happened in 1865 was just a formal legal attempt by Washington to force the southern states to accept the policy of civil rights and racial equality between African Americans and White Americans but, in practice, the realization of such legal action took a whole century of time. Just as a metter of comparison, the serfdom was abolished in Tsarist Russia in 1863 – in the same year when the slavery was legally abolished in the USA. However, racial segregation, discrimination, and apartheid (like in the Republic of South Africa till the mid-1980s) were finally abolished in the USA by the law only in 1965 when, de facto, the American Civil War is ended.
We would like to ask you to consider a small donation to help our team keep working. We accept no advertising and rely only on you, our readers, to keep us digging the truth on history, global politics and international relations.
The political and, in some cases, military stand-off between the West and Russia that has unfolded over Ukraine and Syria also includes a number of secondary fronts in which the two actors’ interests clash. The Baltic States, a long dormant political issue, reactivated itself following the Ukrainian coup of 2014, as the leaders of these states believed that they could benefit from fanning the flames of conflict. In that they were likely mistaken, as the status of the Baltics in the future of the European order is far from certain.The coup in Ukraine and the subsequent defection of Crimea from ...
Real Semites are the Palestinians. Current Zionists Israelis genetically are not the Semites.They are the real anti Semitic people. Please world stop those anti Semitic warmongers Israeli Zionists!Origins of images: Facebook, Twitter, Wikimedia, Wikipedia, Flickr, Google, Imageinjection, Public Domain & Pinterest.Read our Disclaimer/Legal Statement!Donate to Support UsWe would like to ask you to consider a small donation to help our team keep working. We accept no advertising and rely only on you, our readers, to keep us digging the truth on history, global politics and international relations.SaveSaveSaveSave
In the sea of misinformation sloshing around the Western media during the Yugoslav civil wars, Serbs fared the worst. As a rule, they were accused even of atrocities that never happened, or were committed by others. The real truth would usually emerge several years later, from the mouths of international officials who at the time held important and responsible positions.
American press and electronic media have “discovered” that the Serbs weren’t the “bad guys” to the extent the American reporters from the Balkans made them out to be. Even though Jack Kelly, a correspondent of USA Today, resigned years ago because ...
Western media is becoming unhinged as its anti-Russia propaganda struggles to keep a hold on its consumers. Two recent examples provide evidence.
Pro-peace conspiracy emanating from Moscow
On August 28, the New York Times published an article by its Moscow bureau chief about the troubling news (from the Times‘ viewpoint) that the people of Sweden are not happy with their government’s wish to join up with the NATO military alliance.
The ruling elites in Sweden and Finland have been quietly pushing for NATO membership for years. In May, the Swedish government pushed through the Riksdag a proposal for a ‘cooperation agreement’ with NATO, ...
This article is excerpted from Fawaz A. Gerges’s forthcoming book, ISIS: A History.Although the spectacular surge of ISIS must be contextualized within the social and political circumstances that exist in Iraq and Syria and beyond, the group’s worldview and ideology should be taken equally seriously. Ideology is, after all, the superglue that binds Salafi-jihadists known as revolutionary religious activists or global jihadists of the ISIS variety to each other. The Salafi-jihadist movement emerged from an alliance between ultraconservative Saudi Salafism (or Wahhabism) and revolutionary Egyptian Islamism which was inspired by the Egyptian master theorist, Sayyid Qutb. The Afghan war against ...
Here it comes again. As the enemies of peace continue to pressure a new US President into deeper war commitments overseas, and as Washington’s Deep State works relentlessly opposing Russian moves in Syria at every turn, the war drums have started again – beating harder than ever now, clamouring for a new US-led attack on Syria. This morning we saw the familiar theme emerge, and just in time to provide a convenient backdrop to this week’s Brussels’ ‘Peace Talks’ and conference on “Syria’s Future”.
The US-led ‘Coalition’ prepares to make its end-run into Syria to ‘Retake Raqqa,’ and impose its Safe Zones in order ...
There has long been speculation about a Turkish good-bye to NATO.The U.S. and its military proxy organization in Europe are doing their best to further such a move:The image of Atatürk was displayed as a target during the drill at NATO’s Joint Warfare Center in Stavanger, Norway held between Nov. 8 and Nov. 17, while a NATO soldier posted defamatory words about Erdoğan on the social media.Atatürk is the founder of the secular Turkey. He was designated as "target" during a desk-top drill. NATO's Joint Warfare Center is not a low level school but an elite officer training institution led ...
IntroductionThis article deals with the question of political and human/minority rights in the region of Kosovo & Metohija ten years after the „March Pogrom 2004“ and fifteen years after the NATO’s military aggression on Serbia and Montenegro and occupation of the region. An importance of this research topic is in a fact that for the first time in the European history a terrorist-style and mafia-ruled (quasi)independent state was created by a full diplomatic, political, economic, military and financial sponsorship by the West under the umbrella of the NATO’s and the EU’s protective administration. The precedence of Kosovo’s self-proclaimed independence in ...
Part I, Part II, Part III, Part IV, Part V
A follow-up of Professor Vladimir Kozin’s comments on NATO’s Fact Sheet about relations with Russia published in December 2014. The topics to be covered in this part:
NATO’s operation in Afghanistan was a failure;
The NATO-led mission in Afghanistan failed to stop the Afghan drugs trade;
NATO’s operation over Libya was illegitimate;
NATO’s operation over Kosovo was illegitimate;
The cases of Kosovo and Crimea are identical;
Russia’s annexation of Crimea was justified;
The Ukrainian authorities are illegitimate.
NATO’s operation in Afghanistan was a failure
NATO claim: NATO took over the command of the ...
Barack Obama’s speech on the Ukrainian crisis seems to have left the public confused as he claimed that Kosovo broke away from Serbia “after a referendum”. But attentive listeners quickly pointed Obama’s gaps in history – there was no referendum in Kosovo. Video here.President Obama was speaking Wednesday at The Center for Fine Arts in the heart of Brussels, Belgium, and was telling the youth crowd mostly about Russian-Ukrainian conflict over the strategic Crimean Peninsula.He lashed out at Russia for “violation of international law, its assault on Ukraine’s sovereignty and territorial integrity.”Obama recalled the conflict around Kosovo and NATO’s involvement, ...
Thankfully humanity is freed from the scourge of a third Hillary and Bill Clinton crime family co-presidency – she in the lead role with her finger on the nuclear trigger as US military commander-in-chief, perhaps eager to squeeze it.
Newsweek magazine jumped the gun, printing a special edition, distributing it to outlets before November 8 – Hillary on the cover below the heading “MADAM PRESIDENT.”
Shades of November 3, 1948, the Chicago Tribune headlining “DEWEY DEFEATS TRUMAN.” A beaming President HST held up a copy of the broadsheet, saying: “That ain’t the way I heard it!”
Like polls predicted a Hillary victory this ...
The American taxpayers have been fleeced for almost seventy years by a so-called «intelligence» agency that has systematically violated the US Constitution, broken practically every federal law on the books, and penetrated virtually every facet of American life. The Central Intelligence Agency’s creation was bemoaned by its creator, President Harry S Truman, who, in a fit of personal angst following the 1963 assassination of President John F Kennedy, wrote in a newspaper column,“I never had any thought that when I set up the CIA that it would be injected into peacetime cloak and dagger operations… I, therefore, would like to see the ...
North Korea cheered this month when a man with a knife and a history of violent behavior slashed the face of Mark Lippert, the U.S. ambassador to South Korea. The attack in Seoul was “a knife shower of justice,” North Korea said, praising it as “deserved punishment for warmonger United States.”
If that sounds mean-spirited, consider this: For years, North Korea has taught schoolchildren to bayonet effigies of U.S. soldiers. Under its young dictator, Kim Jong Un, the government has suggested it was prepared to nuke Washington, Austin and Southern California. More than 40 years ago, Kim Il Sung, the “Great ...
The ‘mainstream’ Western media is, almost by definition, the last place to consult for honest reporting of Western crimes. Consider the appalling case of Yemen which is consumed by war and an ongoing humanitarian catastrophe.
Since March 2015, a ‘coalition’ of Sunni Arab states led by Saudi Arabia, and supported by the US, Britain and France, has been dropping bombs on neighbouring Yemen. The scale of the bombing is indicated in a recent article by Felicity Arbuthnot – in one year, 330,000 homes, 648 mosques, 630 schools and institutes, and 250 health facilities were destroyed or damaged. The stated aim of ...
They work in concert to carefully lay the foundations and propaganda for war, for between them they hope to dominate the world with their egocentric madness for power and influence. One is a former real estate developer and the other an expansionist occupier of foreign land. Both have access to nuclear and chemical/biological weapons of mass destruction.
They use the most powerful economic and political sanctions available in today’s US-dominated world to aggressively cripple those nation states they wish to either command or destroy and will unilaterally threaten and intimidate all those who oppose them, with financial, economic and military sanctions.
The American aristocracy want inequality of rights, with two basic polar-opposite classes: the ‘elite’, with themselves at the top of everything, and everybody else below them, as subjects to be ruled by them, in such ways as they (themselves, and their fellow ‘elite’) can agree to do. They are convinced that they have earned their high status, in one way or another, and they compete ferociously amongst themselves, to rise even higher within the aristocracy.Many of the aristocrats think that they are ‘elite’ because they are the richest; many think instead that the ‘elite’ are the smartest or the most ...
There are 3 Apartheid Israel-related centenaries this week, namely (1) the victorious 31 October 1917 charge of the Australian Light Horse at Beersheba that led to conquest of Palestine by Britain and massive famine, (2) the nefarious and racist UK Balfour Declaration of 2 November 1917 that gave Palestine to Zionists as a Jewish Homeland as an inducement to help keep Russia in WW1, and (3) commencement of the Palestine Genocide (2 million Palestinian deaths from violence, 0.1 million, or imposed deprivation, 1.9 million, since WW1).
History ignored yields history repeated and genocide ignored yields genocide repeated . Anniversaries are useful ...
Since terrorism’s tragedy is again in the news, it is timely to revisit perhaps one of the biggest acts of terrorism in modern history – the illegal invasion and destruction – ongoing – of Iraq.
March 20th marked the thirteenth anniversary of an action resulting in the equivalent of a Paris, Brussels, London 7th July 2005, often multiple times daily in Iraq ever since. As for 11th September 2001, there has frequently been that death toll and heart break every several weeks, also ongoing.
America and Britain have arguably engaged in and generated the legacy of one of the longest recorded attacks ...
The problem is America’s global hegemony comes with insistence on maintaining military and economic dominance right in China’s backyard.
To avoid a violent militaristic clash with China, or another cold war rivalry, the United States should pursue a simple solution: give up its empire.
Americans fear that China’s rapid economic growth will slowly translate into a more expansive and assertive foreign policy that will inevitably result in a war with the US. Harvard Professor Graham Allison has found: “in 12 of 16 cases in the past 500 years when a rising power challenged a ruling power, the outcome was war.” Chicago University scholar John ...
Since World War II most of the world’s conflicts have revolved around struggles for independence against Western and Japanese colonial/imperial regimes.Following formal independence, a new type of imperial domination was imposed – neo-colonial regimes, in which the US and its European allies imposed vassal rulers acting as proxies for economic exploitation. With the rise of US unipolar global domination, following the demise of the USSR (1990), the West established hegemony over the East European states. Some were subject to fragmentation and sub-divided into new NATO dominated statelets.The quest for a unipolar empire set in motion a series of wars and ...
SHORT LEGAL DISCLAIMER: The website’s owner & editor-in-chief has no official position on any issue published at this website. The views of the authors presented at this website do not necessarily coincide with the opinion of the owner & editor-in-chief of the website. The contents of all material (articles, books, photos, videos…) are of sole responsibility of the authors. The owner & editor-in-chief of this website is not morally, scientifically or legally responsible for any inaccurate or incorrect statement in the contents of all material found on this website. The owner & editor-in-chief of this website is not responsible for the content of external internet sites. No advertising, government or corporate funding for the functioning of this website. The owner & editor-in-chief and authors are not morally, scientifically or legally responsible for any inaccurate or incorrect statement in the text and material found on the website www.global-politics.eu