When the American Civil War Ends: In 1865 or 1965?

The American Civil War 

The American Civil War (1861−1865) was a military conflict between the northern and the southern states of the USA which initially started as a political-economic revolt and desire for the independence by the southern states which created their own Confederacy not recognized by Washington. However, very soon the conflict was transformed into the war for the abolition of the slavery within the whole territory of the USA. In the first half of the 19th century, there was an increasing number of personalities mostly from the industrial northern states who called for the abolition of the slavery but the more agricultural southern states wanted the right for each state to decide whether to keep the slavery or not. The South as well as wanted individual states to have more power in their hands than the US’ federal government allowed and, therefore, the southern states became secessionists as they believe that the southern states should finally secede from the Union. As a result, eleven southern states created the independent Confederacy (the Confederate States of America) with Jefferson Davis as its President with the capital in Richmond (Virginia).

After the battle of Gettysburg in 1863, the Union’s President Abraham Lincoln made his famous „Gettysburg Address“ about democracy and late in the same year issued the „Emancipation Proclamation“ which made slavery illegal. After the war, which won the Union, it was thought that emancipation policy as well won within the whole country and that, therefore, the policy of segregation, apartheid, and discrimination of African American is finally over. However, many Southerners still had very bad feelings towards the North and did not want to end slavery and to stop with the discriminatory policy. Subsequently, it is now the fundamental question when in reality the ideas of emancipation, civil rights, democracy, and integration finally won in American society. Not for sure in 1865 but only a whole century later, even after the WWII, in the mid-1960s with the Civil Rights Movement. In other words, a whole century after the American Civil War ended the segregation, apartheid, disintegration, and discrimination on the racial bases were still in a practice in many (southern) states of the USA – something that was not imaginable in Europe even in its eastern „not democratic“ part of the countries of „Real Socialism“. 

The Civil Rights Movement

The US’ Civil Rights Movement was the national campaign by African Americans fighting for equal rights with the whites and for the cancellation of de facto existing apartheid in the southern states even hundred years after the end of the Civil War. The movement was especially strong and influential in the 1950s and the 1960s. Their campaigns included economic boycotts (refusal to buy particular products), the political actions of Freedom Riders, and, particularly spectacular, a March to Washington led by Martin Luther King (1929−1968) in August 1963 (250.000 people) when he made his famous „I Have a Dream“ speech at the Lincoln Memorial. That was his personal vision of the USA as a society of equal rights. Ultimately, the Movement succeeded in causing the introduction of affirmative laws as there were the 1964 Civil Rights Act and the 1965 Voting Rights Act. These two affirmative acts changed the attitudes of many white Americans and, basically, ended the Civil War concerning the full social and political affirmation of African Americans.

The affirmative laws were followed by the affirmative action initiated as the US’ government policy by the US’ President Johnson in 1965 when he created the Office of Federal Contract Compliance and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Through these bureaus, affirmative action was designed to reduce social and racial inequalities in the US’ society by requiring all federal government contractors and public institutions to give consideration to racial minorities (and from 1971 to women).

The Movement became inspired by the case of Rosa Parks, who had defied a rule of segregation on the bus system in Montgomery (Alabama) when in December 1955 because of that she was arrested. The case caused a year-boycott of the entire system but further boycotts followed during the late 1950s and early 1960s. These boycotts became galvanized by Martin Luther King, who was a co-founder of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference and the Student Non-Violent Co-ordinating Committee. The charisma of Martin Luther King very much empowered the Civil Rights Movement through religion. At the beginning of the 1960s, there were students’ actions forcing desegregation of lunch counters, cinemas, supermarkets, libraries, and many other public facilities.

One of the most important successes of the Movement was the practice to publically and officially use a term „African American“ instead of „black“ as the latter was commonly understood by African Americans to be racially derogative. In other words, from the time of the Civil Rights Movement, it finally became usual in the US to use a term African American as a name for black Americans descended from Africans, especially those descended from American slaves. The term has become gradually more popular and politically more correct than „black“ as it avoided language that may offend a particular group. Today, about 12% of the US’ population are African Americans (or Afro-Americans). 

The Freedom Riders 

The Freedom Riders significantly participated in the US’ Movement for Civil Rights in the early 1960s. They were groups composed by both whites and African Americans from the northern states of the US who in 1961 rode together in buses in the Deep South as a protest against racial segregation (apartheid) on public transport. In fact, they were racially integrated groups of travelers who went south and there were around 3.600 arrests of them.

The Deep South is a term used to mark the most southern states of the South-East US: Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Lousiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, and East Texas. They were among the states which in 1861 had legalized slavery and left at that year the Union (the United States of America) by forming an independent Confederacy. They still a hundred years after the Civil War had racial problems and the people in those states are mostly conservative in their politics and religion.

Until the mid-1960s, the racial segregation in the Deep States was an every-day policy in practice. To remind ourselves, segregation is a policy of separating certain groups from the rest of the community, especially because of their racial background. In the USA, the policy of segregation or, de facto, apartheid, particularly in the southern states, denied African Americans their rights and forced them to use separate schools, restaurants, hotels, cinemas, etc. from those used by white people. From this point of view, there was no big difference between the South African system of legalized racial apartheid from the policy of segregation in the Deep South until the mid-1960s. However, as a result of the Civil Rights Movement, laws were passed in the 1950s and 1960s which greatly reduced segregation in the US’ society in the Deep South. This legal-political process is called desegregation or integration to which the Freedom Riders participated as well.   

The first Freedom Riders were organized by the Congress of Racial Equality. They were often attacked by angry crowds of the whites. However, in November 1961 (on the hundred years anniversary of the beginning of the Civil War) the Interstate Commerce Commission legally ended segregation on buses. The Congress of Racial Equality (the CORE) is the US’ organization which supports equal social, economic and political rights for African Americans by peaceful and legal actions. The CORE was established in 1942 in Chicago by James Farmer and became influential and well known in the 1960s for encouraging African Americans to vote and for leading Freedom Riders into the Deep South.

The Civil Rights Acts 

In the history of the USA, there were ten fundamental Civil Rights Acts, nine of which were passed from 1957 to 1991. Those Acts were aimed to equalize the political condition of African Americans with White Americans. The 1957 Act began the modern cycle by creating the Civil Rights Commission, the Civil Rights Division of the US’ Justice Department, and the procedure whereby federal court could enforce the voting rights of the US’ citizens against obstructions without jury trials of obstructers. Whereas before, White Americans who had prevented African Americans from voting were often acquitted by all-White juries. However, from 1957 onward voting-rights offenders were no longer tried by jury. The 1957 Act was soon followed by the 1960 Act which introduced criminal sanctions for racial violence and which reinforced voting-rights protection by the courts. 

The 1964 Civil Rights Act

The landmark of civil rights legislation was the 1964 Civil Rights Act.

The 1964 Civil Rights Act was the US’s law which forced the US’s southern states (being the members of the Confederacy during the 1861−1865 Civil War) to:

  1. Allow African Americans to enter public facilities like restaurants, hotels, cinemas, etc. which, up to that time, were exclusively reserved for white people only.
  2. To end the practice of having separate areas for black and white people in theatres, train stations, buses, etc.

This legal Act was mostly the result of the Civil Rights Movement that was strongly supported by the 36th US’ President Lyndon B. Johnson (Democrat, 1963−1969). The act was the most far-reaching bill of its kind, forbidding racial discrimination in employment, education, or accommodation.

According to the act, the federal government acquired the power to bar racial segregation and discrimination in federally funded programs. Racial discrimination in employment was outlawed and an Equal Opportunities Commission was created in order to promote affirmative actions. The Act also benefited women, who were now protected by law from discrimination based on gender. 

The act was followed next year by the Voting Rights Act.

The 1965 Voting Rights Act

The 1965 Voting Rights Act is a US’ law passed during the Civil Rights Movement, signed by President Lyndon B. Johnson. The Act implemented the 25th Amendment outlawing voting restrictions based on poll taxes and literacy tests, and which resulted directly in a threefold increase in African American registration in the southern states. The Act, in sum, made illegal a number of racially-based restrictions that had been used, mostly in the southern states, to keep African Americans from voting. These restrictions included, among other measures, a test of people’s ability to read and write. By this Act, the voting discrimination ended, at least from the legal point of view.

Nevertheless, in practice, non-political civil rights had to be more protected, as discrimination continued up today in areas like housing, employment, the law, and access to high-quality education.   

Conclusion

As a matter of conclusion, the American Civil War, that is usually considered to be ended in 1865, in fact, according to the legal process of implementation of democratic civil rights, proclaimed by the US’ federal government during the war, ended only in 1965 with the Voting Rights Act. What happened in 1865 was just a formal legal attempt by Washington to force the southern states to accept the policy of civil rights and racial equality between African Americans and White Americans but, in practice, the realization of such legal action took a whole century of time. Just as a metter of comparison, the serfdom was abolished in Tsarist Russia in 1863 – in the same year when the slavery was legally abolished in the USA. However, racial segregation, discrimination, and apartheid (like in the Republic of South Africa till the mid-1980s)  were finally abolished in the USA by the law only in 1965 when, de facto, the American Civil War is ended.   


Dr. Vladislav B. Sotirović

www.global-politics.eu/sotirovic

sotirovic@global-politics.eu

© Vladislav B. Sotirović 2019

Origins of images: Facebook, Twitter, Wikimedia, Wikipedia, Flickr, Google, Imageinjection & Pinterest.

Read our Disclaimer/Legal Statement!

Donate to Support Us

We would like to ask you to consider a small donation to help our team keep working. We accept no advertising and rely only on you, our readers, to keep us digging the truth on history, global politics and international relations.

READ MORE!
Clinton: Destroy Syria for Israel
A newly-released Hilary Clinton email confirmed that the Obama administration has deliberately provoked the civil war in Syria as the “best way to help Israel.” In an indication of her murderous and psychopathic nature, Clinton also wrote that it was the “right thing” to personally threaten Bashar Assad’s family with death. In the email, released by Wikileaks, then Secretary of State Clinton says that the “best way to help Israel” is to “use force” in Syria to overthrow the government. The document was one of many unclassified by the US Department of State under case number F-2014-20439, Doc No. C05794498, following the uproar ...
READ MORE
“The Civilized World” Strikes Again: Donald Trump, a Complete Puppet of the Military Industrial Complex
It is apparent given the timelines and the lack of time given to verifying the validity of accusations concerning the gas attack in Homs, Syria, that plans had already been coordinated for such an attack. Watching the mainstream media the viewer receives the impression from the wording of the announcers reports and questions for the “experts” that the matter was already decided in favour of the U.S. military strike on the airbase. I see pictures of Colin Powell at the UN holding up glossy photos of supposed chemical weapons manufacturing plants. It demonstrates to a high degree how easily manipulated Trump ...
READ MORE
Kosovo Albanian “Skanderbeg SS Division”
The historical and political precedents for the creation of a greater Sqiperia or Greater Albania was set during World War II when the Kosovo and Metohija regions along with territory Southwest of lake Skutari from Montenegro and the western region of Southern Serbia, or Juzna Srbija (now part of Macedonia), were annexed to Albania by the Axis powers led by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany, under a plan devised by Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler to dismember and to destroy the Serbian Nation and people, which the Germans and Italians perceived as the main threat to the Axiss powers and ...
READ MORE
“Making America Great Again” by Reducing the World to Ashes?
“In the event of a nuclear war, there will be no chances, there will be no survivors – all will be obliterated… nuclear devastation is not science fiction – it is a matter of fact. The world now stands on the brink of the final abyss. Let us all resolve to take all possible practical steps to ensure that we do not, through our own folly, go over the edge.” Former First Sea Lord, Lord Louis Mountbatten (1900-1979) Strasbourg, 11 May 1979.” As US threats ratchet up towards North Korea, the latest hinging on the accusation that the country attempted a ...
READ MORE
NATO & the Humanitarian Dismemberment of Yugoslavia
On March 24th, 1999, NATO launched its 78-day round the clock aerial assault on the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia without the approval of the United Nations Security Council. Over a thousand NATO warplanes delivered over 2,000 airstrikes in nearly 40,000 sorties, dropping over 20,000 bombs over the former Yugoslavia, killing thousands of civilian men, women, and children, as well as upwards of a thousand Yugoslav soldiers and police.[1] [2] [3] NATO employed weapons considered criminal by international law such as depleted uranium and cluster bombs.[4] [5] [6] [7] The popular narrative is that is that the Western powers dropped these bombs ...
READ MORE
The Violent American Century: War and Terror Since World War II
World War II marked the apogee of industrialized “total war.” Great powers savaged one another. Hostilities engulfed the globe. Mobilization extended to virtually every sector of every nation. Air war, including the terror bombing of civilians, emerged as a central strategy of the victorious Anglo-American powers. The devastation was catastrophic almost everywhere, with the notable exception of the United States, which exited the strife unscathed and unmatched in power and influence. The death toll of fighting forces plus civilians worldwide was staggering. The Violent American Century addresses the U.S.-led transformations in war conduct and strategizing that followed 1945—beginning with brutal localized ...
READ MORE
British Imperial Project in Ukraine: Violent Coup, Fascist Axioms, Neo-Nazis (2014)
Uncovering the Western mainstream mass-media lies on Ukraine. Read our Disclaimer/Legal Statement! Donate to Support Us We would like to ask you to consider a small donation to help our team keep working. We accept no advertising and rely only on you, our readers, to keep us digging the truth on history, global politics and international relations.
READ MORE
War Crimes: Agent Orange, Monsanto, Dow Chemical and Other Ugly Legacies of the Vietnam War
Fifty years ago this next month (December 1965), with the urging of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the rubber stamp approval of President Lyndon Johnson and Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara, the United States Air Force started secretly spraying the forests of Laos with a deadly herbicide that was known as Agent Orange. Operation Ranch Hand, whose motto was “Only We Can Prevent Forests” (a shameful takeoff of Smokey the Bear’s admonition), was a desperate, costly and ultimately futile effort to make it a little harder for the National Liberation Front soldiers from North Vietnam to join and supply their ...
READ MORE
Accusing Russia: Listening to History
The prophet Cassandra’s curse was that when she told the future, no one listened; history’s curse is that when it tells the past, no one does. The West has no shortage of charges it hurls against Russia, but most of them can be grouped into one of three categories: that Russia intervened in the American elections, that Russia is dragging the world into a new cold war, and that Russia is becoming increasingly aggressive and expansionist. Sometimes when charges are brought against you, the best witness you can call to your defense is history. Election Intervention This history of Russia, America and political ...
READ MORE
Crimea: Was it Seized by Russia, or did Russia Block its Seizure by the U.S.?
Both before and after Crimea left Ukraine and joined Russia in a public referendum on 16 March 2014, the Gallup Organization polled Crimeans on behalf of the U.S. Government, and found them to be extremely pro-Russian and anti-American, and also anti-Ukrainian. (Neither poll was subsequently publicized, because the results of each were the opposite of what the sponsor had wished.) Both polls were done on behalf of the U.S. Government, in order to find Crimeans’ attitudes toward the United States and toward Russia, and also toward Ukraine, not only before but also after the planned U.S. coup in Ukraine, which occurred ...
READ MORE
For Decades Russia Has Been Forced to Respond to NATO Expansion
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), established in 1949 on the pretext of “containing Soviet influence”, has almost doubled in size within the past two decades alone. In 1998, NATO comprised 16 member states, but with repeated expansions up to Russia’s very borders, it now contains almost 30 countries. Though seldom mentioned in mainstream discourse, NATO is a US-dominated organization, whose orders are issued from Washington and customarily obeyed. The US is by far the largest contributor to the alliance, spending more than all other member nations put together. One of the critical reasons behind NATO’s formation almost 70 years ago, was ...
READ MORE
“Islamic State Déjà Vu”
Author’s note: The following article focussing on the jihadist terrorist insurgency in Macedonia was first published by antiwar.com in July 2001, barely two months before the September 11, 2001 attacks on the WTC and the Pentagon. Known and documented, since the Soviet-Afghan war, recruiting Mujahedin (“holy warriors”) to fight covert wars on Washington’s behest had become an integral part of US foreign policy. A report of the US Congress had revealed how the US administration – under advice from the National Security Council headed by Anthony Lake – had “helped turn Bosnia into a militant Islamic base” leading to the recruitment ...
READ MORE
Living Under Libyan “Dictator” Muammar Gaddafi
Origins of images: Facebook, Twitter, Wikimedia, Wikipedia, Flickr, Google, Imageinjection & Pinterest. Read our Disclaimer/Legal Statement! Donate to Support Us We would like to ask you to consider a small donation to help our team keep working. We accept no advertising and rely only on you, our readers, to keep us digging the truth on history, global politics and international relations.
READ MORE
Distorting Fascism to Sanitize Capitalism
The facile and indiscriminate use of the term fascism has led to a widespread misunderstanding and misuse of its meaning. Asked to define fascism, most people would respond in terms such as dictatorship, anti-Semitism, mass hysteria, efficient propaganda machine, mesmerizing oratory of a psychopathic leader, and the like.Such a pervasive misconception of the meaning of the term fascism is not altogether fortuitous. It is largely because of a longstanding utilitarian misrepresentation of the term. Fascism is deliberately obfuscated in order to sanitize capitalism. Ideologues, theorists and opinion-makers of capitalism have systematically shifted the systemic sins of fascism from market/capitalist failures ...
READ MORE
Kosovo’s Mafia: How the US and Allies Ignore Organized Crime
PRISTINA, Kosovo — It was the fall of 2000, just over a year after the end of the war in Kosovo, when two NATO military intelligence officers produced the first known report on local organized crime, painting the former political leader of the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), Hashim Thaci, as having “established influence on local criminal organizations, which control [a] large part of Kosovo.” The report, the existence of which has not been previously reported, was widely distributed among all NATO countries, according to former NATO sources interviewed by GlobalPost. And year after year as the nascent democracy of Kosovo struggled ...
READ MORE
Israel’s Attack on the USS Liberty (June 8th, 1967): A Half Century Later, Still no Justice
In early June of 1967, at the onset of the Six Day War, the Pentagon sent the USS Liberty from Spain into international waters off the coast of Gaza to monitor the progress of Israel’s attack on the Arab states. The Liberty was a lightly armed surveillance ship. Only hours after the Liberty arrived it was spotted by the Israeli military. The IDF sent out reconnaissance planes to identify the ship. They made eight trips over a period of three hours. The Liberty was flying a large US flag and was easily recognizable as an American vessel. Soon more planes came. These ...
READ MORE
Dusseldorf Axe Attacker: “Fatmir H.”, Muslim Albanian from Kosovo
If a German had shown up in London in 1944 and opened fire, would police have ruled out any connection to Nazism? Fatmir H. comes from a hotbed of jihad activity. The Islamic State and al-Qaeda have issued repeated calls for Muslims in West to murder civilians. We have seen the perpetrators of numerous jihad terror attacks declared mentally ill, often absurdly. In light of all that, the possibility that this was a jihad terror attack cannot be ruled out. “‘He jumped out of the train and started to strike at people with an AXE’: Horror in Dusseldorf as Kosovan attacker ...
READ MORE
“Beating the Drums of War”: How Obama and Clinton are Endangering All of Us
I am a lifelong FDR (Franklin Delano Roosevelt) Democrat and therefore am anything other than prejudiced against the Democratic Party. But, that Party died when Bill Clinton became President and undid FDR’s regulations on the megabanks and FDR’s AFDC income program for children in poor families, and when Clinton replaced that with restoration of Wall Street’s control over America (like before FDR, only a more convoluted form of it). However, the way in which both Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton endanger all people’s lives and property and health and welfare, has to do with something else, something that’s even more ...
READ MORE
Pax Americana: Who are the Neocon Imperialists?
Neocon 101: What do Neoconservatives Believe? “Neocons” believe that the United States should not be ashamed to use its unrivaled power – forcefully if necessary – to promote its values around the world. Some even speak of the need to cultivate a US empire. Neoconservatives believe modern threats facing the US can no longer be reliably contained and therefore must be prevented, sometimes through preemptive military action. Most neocons believe that the US has allowed dangers to gather by not spending enough on defense and not confronting threats aggressively enough. One such threat, they contend, was Saddam Hussein and his pursuit of ...
READ MORE
Media Erase NATO Role in Bringing Slave Markets to Libya
Twenty-first century slave markets. Human beings sold for a few hundred dollars. Massive protests throughout the world. The American and British media have awakened to the grim reality in Libya, where African refugees are for sale in open-air slave markets. Yet a crucial detail in this scandal has been downplayed or even ignored in many corporate media reports: the role of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in bringing slavery to the North African nation. In March 2011, NATO launched a war in Libya expressly aimed at toppling the government of longtime leader Muammar Qadhafi. The US and its allies flew some 26,000 sorties ...
READ MORE
Clinton: Destroy Syria for Israel
“The Civilized World” Strikes Again: Donald Trump, a Complete Puppet of the Military Industrial Complex
Kosovo Albanian “Skanderbeg SS Division”
“Making America Great Again” by Reducing the World to Ashes?
NATO & the Humanitarian Dismemberment of Yugoslavia
The Violent American Century: War and Terror Since World War II
British Imperial Project in Ukraine: Violent Coup, Fascist Axioms, Neo-Nazis (2014)
War Crimes: Agent Orange, Monsanto, Dow Chemical and Other Ugly Legacies of the Vietnam War
Accusing Russia: Listening to History
Crimea: Was it Seized by Russia, or did Russia Block its Seizure by the U.S.?
For Decades Russia Has Been Forced to Respond to NATO Expansion
“Islamic State Déjà Vu”
Living Under Libyan “Dictator” Muammar Gaddafi
Distorting Fascism to Sanitize Capitalism
Kosovo’s Mafia: How the US and Allies Ignore Organized Crime
Israel’s Attack on the USS Liberty (June 8th, 1967): A Half Century Later, Still no Justice
Dusseldorf Axe Attacker: “Fatmir H.”, Muslim Albanian from Kosovo
“Beating the Drums of War”: How Obama and Clinton are Endangering All of Us
Pax Americana: Who are the Neocon Imperialists?
Media Erase NATO Role in Bringing Slave Markets to Libya
Policraticus

Written by Policraticus

SHORT LEGAL DISCLAIMER: The website’s owner & editor-in-chief has no official position on any issue published at this website. The views of the authors presented at this website do not necessarily coincide with the opinion of the owner & editor-in-chief of the website. The contents of all material (articles, books, photos, videos…) are of sole responsibility of the authors. The owner & editor-in-chief of this website is not morally, scientifically or legally responsible for any inaccurate or incorrect statement in the contents of all material found on this website. The owner & editor-in-chief of this website is not responsible for the content of external internet sites. No advertising, government or corporate funding for the functioning of this website. The owner & editor-in-chief and authors are not morally, scientifically or legally responsible for any inaccurate or incorrect statement in the text and material found on the website www.global-politics.eu

Website: http://www.global-politics.eu