The Idea Of Pan-Slavic Ethnolinguistic Kinship And Reciprocity In Dalmatia And Croatia, 1477–1706

Abstract: This paper sets out to examine and clarify historical development of the ideological concept of Pan-Slavism, which was created by the writers of Dalmatia and Croatia at the time of the late Renaissance and early Baroque (from the end of the 15th century to the very beginning of the 18th century). The literary works of that time by many of Dalmatia’s and Croatia’s writers deal with the ethnolinguistic aspect of Pan-Slavic unity, solidarity, kinship and reciprocity. Their writings established an ideological framework for making both Pan-Slavic common national identity and program of the united single national state of the South Slavs in the Balkans. This “ethnolinguistic” framework of Pan-Slavic, and especially South Slavic, national identity became in the 19th and the 20th century the cornerstone of national ideology of “Yugoslavism” and “Pan-Slavism” which ultimately led to the creation of Yugoslavia in 1918 and its recreation in 1945. The main aspect of the ideology of Pan-Slavism and “Yugoslavism” that was developed in the literature and historical writings in Dalmatia and Croatia from 1477 to 1706 was based on the old domestic thought and tradition that all Slavs originated in the Balkans and that the South Slavs are autochthonous inhabitants of this peninsula.

Key words: Pan-Slavism, Pan-Croatianism, Slavic solidarity, Yugoslavism, Dalmatia, Balkans, South Slavic ethnolinguistic identity, South Slavic nationalism.

Dalmatian and especially Ragusian (Dubrovnik) humanists in the 16th century accepted the old domestic thought that all Slavs originated in the Balkans and that the South Slavs are autochthonous inhabitants of the peninsula. More precisely, the entire Slavic population had their own forefathers in the ancient Balkan Illyrians, Macedonians and Tracians. Principally, the ancient Illyrians were considered as the real ancestors of the South, Eastern and Western Slavs. Consequently, according to this belief, the Eastern and Western Slavic tribes emigrated from the Balkans and settled themselves on the wide territory of Europe from the Elbe River in the west to the Volga River in the east [about the western borders of Slavic extension in the early Middle Ages see, Engel 1979, 36]. However, the South Slavs remained in the Balkans – the peninsula that was considered as the motherland of all Slavonic peoples [Историја народа Југославије 1960, 224−227]. Subsequently, all famous historical actors originated in the Balkans were appropriated as members of the Slavdom: Alexander the Great of Macedonia, Aristotle, St. Jerome (Hieronimus), Diocletian, Constantin the Great, SS. Cyril and Methodius, etc.

Famous Ragusian humanistic “poeta laureatus” Ilija Crijević (Aelius Lampridius Cervinus, 1463–1520), for instance, knew that inhabitants of his born-city were of both Roman and Slavic origins as he pointed it in his poem Oda Dubrovniku (“Ode for Dubrovnik”). Crijević in his work Super comoedia veteri et satyra et nova, cum Plauti apologia (“Apology for Plaut”) called the language of the ordinary people from Ragusa/Dubrovnik as “stribiligo illyrica” (“Illyrian solecism”), or as “scythica lingua” (“Scythian language”), following the tradition that ancient Slavs are called among other names and as Scythians and Sarmatians. These two old Indo-European Iranian people lived during the time of ancient Greeks and Romans on the territory of the present-day Southern Ukraine and Russia (from the Volga River to the Danube River) and became in the Middle Ages synonyms for the Slavs ([Hammond MCMLXXXIV, 3, 5; Westermann 1985, 11, 14–15, 22–23, 24; Fine 1994, 25–26]. About a homeland of the Indo-Europeans see [Mallory 1989; Gimbutas 1985, 185–202]). In the song Qui proavi solio et patrueli culmine regnas, written for Bohemian-Hungarian King Władysław II Jagiello (King of Bohemia 1471–1516 and King of Hungary 1490–1516), Crijević considered the East Adriatic littoral as “Illyrian coast” [Franičević 1983, 310–313; Banac 1991, 29; Tadin 1903, 265–278]. His contemporary, priest Mavro from Dalmatia, in his Glagolitic Breviary from 1460 indicated the town of Salona nearby Dalmatian city of Split as the birthplace of SS. Cyril and Methodius, who were in fact the brothers from Salonika. Moreover, these two “apostles of the Slavs”, according to the priest Mavro, were descendents from Roman Emperor Diocletian, and Pope St. Gaius: “V Dlmacii Soline grdě. roistvo svetago Kurila i brata ego Metudie. ot roda Děokliciêna cěsara. i svetago Gaê papi” [Pantelić 1965, 133; Banac 1991, 9]. St. Jerome from Dalmatia was as well appropriated as a Slav and later on exclusively as a Croat. Consequently, the Latin-language Bible, which was written by St. Jerome and used by all Catholic Slavs in Europe, was recognized by Dalmatian Catholics as achievement of the Slavic Croat. Moreover, St. Jerome was unjustifiably proclaimed as an inventor of the oldest Slavic alphabet – the Glagolitic one, named as well as “Jerome’s script” and later this alphabet became appropriated by Croats as their own original and national alphabet that became used and by other Slavonic peoples.

As a result, the first written Slavic language (named by scholars as Old Church Slavonic), and devised in fact by Constantine (Cyril) and Methodius in the middle of the 9th century [Fine 1994, 302], became appropriated by Croats in the Middle Ages and almost immediately as Croatian national and indigenous literal language. This belief founded an ideological doctrine in the later centuries for claiming that all people (i.e., Slavs) who used this language virtually belonged to Croatian ethnic community. In the late medieval times following a popular tradition about St. Jerome he was assumed as spiritual progenitor of Croatian people who translated Hebrew and Greek holy writings (“sacre scripture”) to both Latin and Slavonic languages [Štefanić 1963, 34–36]. Even the Roman Catholic Church accepted this popular opinion that St. Jerome was founder of Slavonic literacy. It is clear from the letter by the Pope Innocent IV (1234–1254) to Philip, the Bishop of Northern Dalmatian city of Senj: “…in Sclavonia est littera specialis, quam illius terrae clerici se habere a beato Jeronimo asserentes, eam observant in divinis officiis celebrandis” [Jelić 1906a, 9]. The same Pope confirmed twice, in 1248 and 1252, the usage of “Jerome’s script” in the liturgy among Catholics in the area of Northern Dalmatia [Jelić 1906a, 9–10]. The Croats were granted once again with the right to use “Jeronimska pismena” (“Jerome’s script”) in 1754 by Pope Benedict XIV in his Ex pastorali munere. In this pastoral letter the Pope named Croats as “Illyrians” [Jelić 1906c, 39–40]. The same alphabet, which according to the local South Slavic tradition originated in Dalmatia, was used among Central European Slavs in the Middle Ages too. Thus, King of Bohemia and Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation, Carlo IV (1346–1378) noticed that the church service in the monastery of Emmaus nearby Prague is served in Slavic language according to translation by St. Jerome: “ob reverentiam et memoriam plorisissimi confessors Beati Jeronymi Strydoniensis Doctoris egregii et translatoris interpretisque eximii sacre scripture de Ebraica in Latinam et Sclavonicam linguas” [Jelić 1906b, 5]. However, there are today claims that St. Jerome was ethnic Serb, born in ethnic Serb area in present-day Bosnia (in Bosansko Grahovo), speaking Serb language of Shtokavian dialect and that he was, likewise many other Roman Catholic Štokavian speakers, Croatized by the Roman Catholic church [Бајић 2003].

Still at the turn of the 17th century some of the well-known Dalmatian publicists and scientists, like Dinko Zavorović from Šibenik/Sebenico (Domenico Zavoreo, 1540–1610), believed that the real inventor of Glagolitic script was Slav St. Jerome from Dalmatia (Hieronymus Dalmatiae) [Štefanić 1963, 38–39], while others, like Faust Vrančić as well from Šibenik (Faustus Verantius, 1551–1617) were sure that brothers Cyril and Methodius invented Cyrillic letters but not Glagolitic ones. This opinion resulted in logical conclusion that all Slavonic peoples who used either Glagolitic or Cyrillic alphabets in fact practiced “Illyrian” or “Dalmatian” or “Croatian” script. All of these three script-names became synonyms for the national language and alphabet of the Croats, i.e., Illyrians. As this language and alphabet was used among all Slavs, “Croatian” language and alphabet became ones of the most used and important in the world.

The principal and most influential protagonist of this doctrine became already mentioned historian and philosopher Faust Vrančić who printed the book Dictionarium quinque nobilissimarum Europae linguarum, Latinae, Italicae, Germanicae, Dalmatiae & Ungaricae (“Dictionary of the five most nobles European languages, Latin, Italian, German, Dalmatian & Hungarian”) in Venice in 1595. He recognized that “Illyrian”, “Croatian” and “Dalmatian” names are acctually the synonyms [Verantius 1595; Vrančić 1971; Banac 1991, 31; Franičević 1983, 675; Cronia 1953; Dukat 1925, 102–136]. According to him, “Dalmatian language” was the purest Slavonic dialect [Banac 1991, 39]. This ideology was followed and further developed into the concept of “Pan-Croatianism” at the end of the 17th century by Cratian nobleman of German origin, Pavao Ritter Vitezović (1652–1713) who saw all Slavs as Slavonic-Croats who spoke Slavonic-Croatian language [Ritter 1689; Ritter 1696; Vitezović 1700]. However, contrary to this Vitezović’s claim, today there are many researchers who claim that autochthonous Balkan people have been the Serbs [Деретић И. Ј., 2009; Милановић М, 2011].

A Dominican from Dalmatian Island of Hvar, Vinko Pribojević (the 15th/16th centuties), did the first written systematization of the doctrine of Slavic origin in the Balkans and their kinship in his speech in Latin language given for the local aristocracy in the city of Hvar in 1525. This apologetic speech of glorification of the Slavdom was published in Latin in Venice in 1532 under the title De origine successibusque Slavorum (“On Origins and history of the Slavs”). Pribojević suggested that all non-Hellenic well-known personalities from the Balkans in the Antiquity were of Slavic origin, as Macedonians Philip, Alexander, Aristotle, twenty four Roman emperors born in the Balkans and St. Jerome (Hieronimus). Finally, according to Pribojević, three Dalmatian noble brothers–Czech, Lech and Rus–were the forefathers of the modern Czechs, Poles, and Russians. Moreover, Pribojević during his three-years period of living in Poland and traveling in other Slavic countries became convinced that all Slavonic peoples spoke a single language. More precisely, according to him, the Russians were speaking “Dalmatian tongue”, and the Slavic appellation was younger than Dalmatian, i.e., Illyrian name [Pribojević 1951, 65–70; Историја народа Југославије 1960, 224; Istorija Jugoslavije 1973, 129; Novak 1951, 9–47; Schmaus 1953, 243–254; Gortan 1958, 149–152; Barišić 1961, 227–257]. According to him, the mythical Illyrus was an ancestor of all Slavs. Thus, this famous Dalmatian humanistic and renaissance writer connected the history of the Slavs with the history of the ancient Romans and Macedonians sugesting that current Slavic history is continuation of glorified history of Roman and Macedonian Empires. The Pan-Slavic doctrine of Pribojević became more influential and known among the South Slavs and other European readers when his speech was translated into Italian and published in Venice in 1595.

This Pribojević’s thought was followed by many various South Slavic writers among them the most important became the abbot of a Benedictine congregation, a historian from Ragusa (Dubrovnik), whose family came to this city-Republic from Kotor (present-day a Montenegrin city), Mavro Orbin, “Dalmatian Thucydides” (Mauro Orbini, d. 1611 or 1614). Orbin wrote the first and most influential general Slavic history published in Pesaro 1601 under the title Il Regno degli Slavi (“The Slavic Kingdom”) based mainly on the old popular tradition upon the origins of the Slavs. The book was translated into Russian by Sava Vladislavić who was a Serb retainer of the Russian emperor Peter the Great, and published in St. Petersburg in 1722. Orbini further developed an idea that all Slavs spoke a common language named as “Illyrian” (“Lingua Illyrica”) and that their “national languages” were in fact only dialects of mutual Slavic inter-dialect (koine), which was called among Dalmatians and Ragusians simply as naš/naški (“our”) or slovinski (“Slavic”) language. Orbin accepted the way of thinking of various writers of medieval chronicles from Poland, as well as of Pribojević and Pope Pius II (1405–1464) that the ancestors of the Czechs, Poles and Rus’, i.e., the legendary brothers Czech, Lech and Rus, were actually natives of the Roman province of Illyricum, which was called in Pribojević-Orbini’s times as Dalmatia [Orbini 1601; Orbin 1968, 11–62; Radojčić 1950, 80–82; Matić 1950, 193–197; Историја народа Југославије 1960, 227]. The ancient notion that Dalmatia encompasses the main portion of the Balkan Peninsula was alive in Vitezović’s time as well. For instance, a founder of Croatian critical historiography, Ivan Lučić 1604–1679, a native from Dalmatia, issued a map entitled Dalmatia post Imperii declinationem in Croatiam, Serviam et Dalmatiam ipsam distancta (“Dalmatia after the fall of the Empire divided into Croatia, Serbia and Dalmatia proper”) claiming that Western and Central Balkans belonged to the province of Dalmatia.

A Canon Juraj Ráttkay (1612–1666) in his work Memoria regnum et banorum regnorum Dalmatiae, Croatiae et Sclavoniae (“Remembrance of the kings and bans of the kingdoms of Dalmatia, Croatia and Slavonia”), printed in Zagreb in 1652, located the birthplace of the brothers Czech, Lech and Rus in the Northwestern Croatia around the Krapina region that is 50 km. far from Zagreb on the border with Slovenia. Both Orbini and Ráttkay became familiar with personal experiences upon Slavic ethnolinguistic kinship of several South Slavic travelers who visited Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Muscovy in the 16th and 17th centuries like: Ragusian physician and bishop Tomo Nadal Budislavić (1545–1608) who lived several years in Krakow (Cracow/Kraków) and Aleksandar Komulović from Split who was working under direction of Pope Clement VIII on organization of the Pan-Slavic military action against the Ottoman Turks for the sake to liberate the South Slavs and for that purpose he travelled to Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Muscovite Russia (1594–1598) [Rešetar 1915, 136–141; Gluck 1939, 150–154; Bazala 1954, 255–259; Kolendić 1962, 211–240; Žic 1935, 162–181; Vanino 1936, 40–54; Štefanić 1938, 1–50; Ćorović 1993, 436].

A popular legend upon Slavic ethnic-linguistic kinship and common origin in the Balkans that became systematized by Mavro Orbin had a strong influence among the 17th-century South Slavic writers and public workers. Thus, the most prestigious and celebrated South Slavic author from Dubrovnik, Ivo (Dživo) Gundulić (1589–1638), praised in his poem Osman the Slavic victory of future Polish king and Lithuanian grand duke, Władysław IV Vasa (Vladislovas IV Vaza, 1632–1648), over the Turks in Chotin in 1621. Gundulić hoped that Władysłw’s army will cross Danube and liberate all South Slavic population from Ottoman yoke. Finally, Gundulić sugested to the prince Władysłw to re-establish medieval Serbian Empire and to take a title of Serbian emperor. Subsequently, Kingdom of Poland, Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Serbian Empire would be united by personal union in the name of Władysłw IV Vasa. Gundulić, like many others, followed the pattern of Pribojević and Orbin that famous historical figures from the Balkans belonged to the family of the Slavs. For example, he called Alexander the Great of Macedonia as the Serb (“Serbljanin”) [Историја народа Jугославије 1960, 227–228; Samardžić 1983, 94; Istorija Jugoslavije 1973, 193; Ćorović 1993, 436].

The awareness of existence of a mutual spoken language of all Slavs inspired great number of South Slavic scholars in the 16th and 17th centuries to work on creation of a single South Slavic and Pan-Slavic litteral language taking as a model the local South Slavic, i.e., Illyrian, dialects. The most succesful in this matter was Jesuit Bartol Kašić (1575–1650), from the Dalmatian Island of Pag who lived in Dubrovnik as well, and who was working for many years as a missionar among the South Slavs within the Ottoman Empire. He recognized that all Slavic subjects of the Ottomans spoke one language and thus he chose a Štokavian (Štokavski) dialect spoken in Bosnia and Herzegovina as a model for his common South Slavic grammer published in 1604 in Rome under the headline Institutionum linguae illyricae libri duo. Authore Bartholomeo Cassio Curictensi Societatus Iesu (“Foundations of Illyrian language”) [Cassio 1604; Kašić 1997, 15–75; Šrepel 1890, 172–201; Stojković 1913/1914, 1–9; Stojković 1919, 170–263; Laszowski 1923, 2; Vanino 1934, 123–127; Vanino 1940, 1–144; Cronia 1952, 22–37; Gabrić-Bagarić 1976, 55–68; Gabrić-Bagarić 1984]. With much less success was an attempt to create a single South Slavic inter-dialect by the litteral circle around Slovenian Protestant and reformer of Slovenian language, Primož Trubar (1508–1586), who called himself as “Illyrian patriot”. Their idea was to create a single South Slavic literal, i.e., Illyrian language, by combining all South Slavic dialects and Latin and Cyrillic alphabets into a single South Slavic language and alphabet [Istorija Jugoslavije 1973, 124–134].

Croatian Jesuit student and forefather of the 19th century Slavophilia and Pan-Slavism [Wandycz 1997, 86], Juraj Križanić (1618–1683) who devoted his life to bring together all Slavs predicting their glorified future succeeded finally to form a single Slavic inter-dialect, or mutual Slavonic literal language. Working on Pan-Slavic ethnolinguistic unity of all six Slavic peoples (according to Križanić, the Rus’, Poles, Czechs, Bulgarians, Croats and Serbs) he chose the speech of the Ozalj area in Western Croatia nearby Slovenia as a model for a single Slavic literal language. His opinion was that spoken language of Ozalj area was the purest and the closest to the original Pan-Slavic tongue in both grammar and accent. The reason for such opinion came from the fact that the spoken language of this area had inter-dialectical character, i.e., was consisting of three the most spread South Slavic dialects: Štokavian, Kajkavian and Čakavian (Štokavski, Kajkavski and Čakavski) [Križanić 1859, iii–iv; Golub 1976, 100–103; Šmurlo 1926, 3–4; Šmurlo 1927, 321–325; Težak 1996, 85–94].

Prof. Dr. Vladislav B. Sotirović

www.global-politics.eu/sotirovic

globalpol@global-politics.eu

© Vladislav B. Sotirovic 2016

REFERENCES:

 

  • Бајић Ј. 2003: Блажени Јероним, Солинска црква и Србо-Далмати. Шабац.
  • Banac I., 1991: Hrvatsko jezično pitanje. Zagreb.
  • Barišić F., 1961: Vizantijski izvori u dalmatinskoj istoriografiji XVI i XVII veka, Zbornik radova Vizantološkog instituta, 7. 227–257.
  • Bazala V., 1954: Stric Grgur i nećak Toma Budislavić, Republika, 10, № 2–3. 255–259.
  • Božić I., Ćirković S., Ekmečić M., Dedijer V., 1973: Istorija Jugoslavije. Beograd.
  • Cassio B., 1604: Institutionum linguae illyricae libri duo. Authore Bartholomeo Cassio Curictensi Societatus Iesu. Rome.
  • Ćorović V., 1993 (written in 1941): Istorija Srba. Beograd.
  • Cronia A., 1952: Contributo alla grammatologia serbo-croata, Ricerche slavistiche, 1. 22–37.
  • Cronia A., 1953: Contributto alle lessicografia del Dictionarum quinque nobilissimaram Europae linguarum di Fausto Veranzio, Ricerche slavistiche, 2.
  • Деретић И. Ј., Антић П. Д., Јарчевић М. С. 2009: Измишљено досељавање Срба. Београд.
  • Dukat V., 1925: Rječnik Fausta Vrančića, Rad JAZU, 231. 102–136.
  • Engel J. (redactor), 1979: Großer Historischer Weltatlas. Zweiter Teil. Mittelalter. München.
  • Fine J., 1994: The Early Medieval Balkans. A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century. Ann Arbor.
  • Franičević M., 1983: Povijest hrvatske renesansne književnosti. Zagreb.
  • Gabrić-Bagarić D., 1976: Institutiones linguae illyricae Bartola Kašića i težnje ka standardizaciji jezika, Književni jezik, 1–2. 55–68.
  • Gabrić-Bagarić D., 1984: Jezik Bartola Kašića. Sarajevo.
  • Gimbutas M., 1985: Primary and Secondary Homeland of the Indo-Europeans, Journal of Indo-European Studies, 13. 185–202.
  • Gluck W., 1939: Toma Nadalić Budislavić, Pregled, 3, vol. 15, № 183–184. 150–154.
  • Golub I., 1976: Juraj Križanić, Hrvat iz Ozalja-Georgius Krisanich Croata-ili Križanićeva ukorjenjenost u zavičaju, Kaj, časopis za kulturu, 9–12. 100–103.
  • Gortan V., 1958: Šižgorić i Pribojević, Filologija, 2. 149–152.
  • Hammond, MCMLXXXIV: Historical Atlas of the World. Maplewood.
  • Историја народа Југославије (group of authors), 1960. Београд.
  • Jelić L. (ed.), 1906a: Fontes Historici Liturgiae Glagolito-Romanae a XII ad XIX saeculum, XIII. Krk.
  • Jelić L. (ed.), 1906b: Fontes Historici Liturgiae Glagolito-Romanae a XII ad XIX saeculum, XIV. Krk.
  • Jelić L. (ed.), 1906c: Fontes Historici Liturgiae Glagolito-Romanae a XII ad XIX saeculum, XVIII. Krk.
  • Kašić B., 1997: Izabrana štiva. Zagreb.
  • Kolendić A., 1962: Šest latinskih knjižica štampanih u Krakovu u čast Dubrovčanina Tome Natalisa Budislavića, Zbornik istorije književnosti, SANU, 3. 211–240.
  • Križanić J., 1859: Gramatično izkazânje ob Rúskom jezíku. Moscow.
  • Laszowski E., 1923: Putovanje Bartula Kašića po Srijemu g. 1612–1618, Hrvatski list, 4, № 264. 2.
  • Mallory J.P., 1989: In Search of the Indo-Europeans. London.
  • Matić T., 1950: Bajraktarijev prijevod Orbinijeva “Il regno degli Slavi”, Historijski zbornik, 3, № 1–4. 193–197.
  • Миланковић М. 2011: Историјско порекло Срба. Београд.
  • Orbin M., 1968: Kraljevstvo Slovena. Beograd.
  • Orbini M., 1601: Il Regno degli Slavi.
  • Pantelić M., 1965: Glagoljski brevijar popa Mavra iz godine 1460, Slovo, XV–XVI. 94–149.
  • Pribojević V., 1951: De origine successibusque Slavorum.
  • Radojčić N., 1950: Srpska istorija Mavra Orbinija. Beograd.
  • Rešetar M., 1915: Toma Nadal Budislavić i njegov Collegium Ortodoxum u Dubrovniku, Rad JAZU, 206. 136–141.
  • Ritter P. E., 1689: Anagrammaton, sive Laurus auxiliatoribus Ungariae liber secundus. Vienna.
  • Ritter P. E., 1696: Kronika, Aliti szpomen vsega szvieta vikov. Zagreb.
  • Samardžić R., 1983: Veliki vek Dubrovnika. Beograd.
  • Schmaus A., 1953: Vicentius Priboevius, ein Vorläufer des Panslavismus, Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas, 1. 243–254.
  • Stojković M., 1913/1914: Karakteristika života i djelovanja Bartula Kašića iz Paga, Nastavni vjesnik, 22, № 1. 1–9.
  • Stojković M., 1919: Bartuo Kašić Pažanin, Rad JAZU, 220. 170-263.
  • Šmurlo E. J., 1926: Juraj Križanić: Panslavista o missionario, Rivista di letteratura, arte, storia, 1. 3–4.
  • Šmurlo E. J., 1927: From Križanić to the Slavophils, Slavonic Review, 6, № 17. 321–325.
  • Šrepel M., 1890: Latinski izvor i ocjena Kašićeve gramatike, Rad JAZU, 102. 172–201.
  • Štefanić V., 1938: Bellarmino-Komulovićev Kršćanski nauk, Vrela i prinosi, 8. 1–50.
  • Štefanić V., 1963: Tisuću i sto godina od moravske misije, Slovo, XIII. 5–42.
  • Tadin C., 1903: Elio Lampridio Cerva, Rivista Dalmatica, 3, № 6. 265–278.
  • Težak S., 1996: Naglasci Jurja Križanića i današnji naglasni odnosi na području Ribnika, Ozalja Dubovca, Filologija, 26.
  • Vanino M., 1934: Bartul Kašić i književni mu rad, Napredak, kalendar, 23. 123–127.
  • Vanino M., 1936: O Aleksandru Komuloviću, Napredak, kalendar, 26. 40–54.
  • Vanino M., 1940: Autobiografija Bartula Kašića, Gradja, 15. 1–144.
  • Verantius F., 1595: Dictionarium quinque nobilissimarum Europae linguarum, Latinae, Italicae, Germanicae, Dalmatiae & Ungaricae. Venice.
  • Vitezović P. R., 1700: Croatia rediviva: Regnante Leopoldo Magno Caesare. Zagreb.
  • Vrančić F., 1971: Rječnik pet najuglednijih evropskih jezika. Zagreb.
  • Wandycz P., 1997: Laisves kaina. Vidurio Rytų Europos istorija nou viduramžių iki dabartines. Vilnius.
  • Westermann, 1985: Großer Atlas zur Weltgeschichte. Braunschweig.
  • Žic N., 1935: Hrvatske knjižice Aleksandra Komulovića, Vrela i prinosi, 5. 162–181.

ИДЕЈА СВЕСЛОВЕНСКОГ СРОДСТВА И УЗАЈАМНОСТИ У ДАЛМАЦИЈИ И ХРВАТСКОЈ, 1477.–1706. г.

Проф. Др Владислав Б. Сотировић

Аутор је у овом научно-истраживачком раду настојао да истражи и разјасни проблем историјског развитка идеолошког концепта Свесловенства (Панславизма); концепта који је хронолошки створен од стране писаца из Далмације и Хрватске у време ренесансе и раног барока (од краја XV.-ог до почетка XVIII.-ог столећа). Књижевни радови многих далматинских и хрватских писаца разрађују етнолингвистички аспект свесловенског уједињења, узајамности, заједничког порекла, општег словенског интереса и међусловенске помоћи. Радови ових писаца су засновали идеолошки оквир за формирање како свесловенског заједничкод идентитета, тако и политичког програма оснивања заједничке и јединствене јужнословенске националне државе на Балкану. Овај “етнолингвистички” оквир свесловенског, а посебно јужнословенског, националног идентитета је постао у XIX.-ом и XX.-ом столећу камен темељац националне идеологије “Југословенства”, али и Панславизма, који је коначно довео до стварања заједничке југословенске државе 1918. г. као и до њене обнове 1945. г. Главни аспект идеологије Свесловенства и Југословенства, развијеног у књижевности и историографији Далмације и Хрватске од 1477. г. до 1706. г. је био заснован на месној традицији и легендама да сви Словени потичу са Балкана и да су Јужни Словени аутохтоно балканско становништво, односно, преци Западних и Источних Словена.

ETNOLINGVISTINIO PANSLAVIZMO GIMININGUMO IR SĄVEIKOS IDĖJA DALMATIJOJE IR KROATIJOJE, 1477–1706

Prof. Dr. VLadislav B. Sotirović

Tekste dėstomi istorinio ideologinės panslavizmo sąvokos, kuri buvo sukurta Dalmatijos ir Kroatijos rašytojų vėlyvojo renesanso ir ankstyvojo baroko (nuo 15 amžiaus pabaigos iki 18 amžiaus pradžios) laikotarpyje, vystymosi tyrinėjimai ir aiškinimas. Literatūriniuose daugelio to meto Dalmatijos ir Kroatijos rašytojų veikaluose svarstomas etnolingvistinis panslavizmo vieningumo, solidarumo, giminingumo ir sąveikos aspektas. Jų tekstuose išdėstyta ideologinė panslavizmo bendrajai nacionalinei tapatybei ir programa bendrai vieningai nacionalinei Pietų Slavų valstybei Balkanuose sudaryti apybraiža. Ši panslavistinė, ypač Pietų Slavų, tautinės tapatybės schema, tapo kertamuoju 19 ir 20 amžių nacionalinės ideologijos “Jugoslavizmo” ir “Panslavizmo” akmeniu, kuris galiausia privedė prie Jugoslavijos sukūrimo 1918 metais ir jos pertvarkymo 1945 m. Pagrinidinis panslavizmo ir “jugoslavizmo” ideologijos aspektas, kuris buvo vystomas literatūroje ir istoriniuose veikaluose Dalmatijoje ir Kroatijoje nuo 1477 iki 1706 metų, buvo pagrįstas senuoju vietiniu mąstymu ir tradicija, jog Slavai kilo iš Balkanų ir Pietų Slavai yra autochtoniniai pusiasalio gyventojai.

READ MORE!
Remembering A Magnum Crimen In The Independent State Of Croatia, 1941−1945
After the April War of 6−18th, 1941, the Germans, Italians, Bulgarians and Hungarians occupied and divided the territory of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia into several parts. The Germans annexed the North Slovenia and put under their direct occupation the Yugoslav part of Banat and the Central Serbia with Kosovska Mitrovica. The Italians occupied the South Slovenia, established their marionette regime in Montenegro and annexed the Gulf of Boka Kotorska, parts of Konavli and Dalmatia. The Hungarians annexed Prekomurje, Baranja and Bachka. The Bulgarians occupied the East and Central Vardar Macedonia and the South-East Serbia. The Italians established their own marionette ...
READ MORE
America’s “Junkyard Dogs”: Operation Storm, 20 Years On
A great explanation from an excellent analyst of what happened in Serbia 20 years ago, and why the Ukraine feels like Deja Vu ‘Operation Storm’ in August 1995, when Croatia overran the Serb-inhabited territory of Krajina, was the biggest single instance of ethnic cleansing in the Yugoslav Wars, Because the attack was backed by the US, however, it was never treated as a crime. Between August 4 and August 7, up to 2,000 people were killed and over 220,000 driven from their homes by the Croatian army. No “invaders,” these Serbs had lived in the Krajina – their word for borderlands – for centuries. The ...
READ MORE
The “Serb Question” And Its final Solution In Euro-Croatia
On September 10th, 2015 a City Council of Croatia’s capital Zagreb decided to promote a war criminal General Ante Gotovina to “honorable citizen of the City of Zagreb” for his “contribution to the defending of Croatia’s independence and territorial integrity”. The General, however, as a Commander-in-Chief of Croatia’s army, is directly responsible for a brutal ethnic cleansing and war crimes committed by Croatia’s army, police forces and state authorities over the Serbs during the SS-punishment-style military-police operation “Storm” (Oluja) in August 1995 when around 3000 ethnic Serbs in the Krajina region were killed and 250.000 expelled from their homes. That ...
READ MORE
The Memorandum (1804) By The Karlovci Metropolitan Stevan Stratimirovic
The goal of this article is to investigate and describe the text of one very significant, but so far forgotten, document and historical source upon the question on Serbian liberation from the Ottoman sway and national unification. The document was written in 1804 during the first months of the First Serbian Uprising against the Ottoman oppression [about the uprising see in Petrovich 1976; Vucinich 1982; Temperley 1969; Ђорђевић 1956]. Introduction The Serbian nation was divided at the dawn of the 19th century by the borders of Ottoman pashaliks and by the state frontiers that separated the lands under Ottoman from those under ...
READ MORE
Victims Of The (Western) Christian Faith
Listed are only events that solely occurred on command or participation of church authorities or were committed in the name of Christianity. (List incomplete) Ancient Pagans As soon as Christianity became legal in the Roman Empire by imperial edict (315), more and more pagan temples were destroyed by Christian mob. Pagan priests were killed. Between 315 and 6th century thousands of pagan believers were slain. Examples of destroyed Temples: the Sanctuary of Aesculap in Aegaea, the Temple of Aphrodite in Golgatha, Aphaka in Lebanon, the Heliopolis. Christian priests such as Mark of Arethusa or Cyrill of Heliopolis were famous as "temple ...
READ MORE
(Only) three examples of the 20th century the Roman Catholic Church atrocities of genocide
1. Catholic extermination camps Surprisingly few know that Nazi extermination camps in World War II were by no means the only ones in Europe at the time. In the years 1942-1943 also in Croatia existed numerous extermination camps, run by Catholic Ustasha under their dictator Ante Pavelic, a practicing Catholic and regular visitor to the then pope. There were even concentration camps exclusively for children! In these camps – the most notorious was Jasenovac, headed by a Franciscan friar – orthodox-Christian Serbians (and a substantial number of Jews) were murdered. Like the Nazis the Catholic Ustasha burned their victims in kilns, alive ...
READ MORE
“We have the right to live”: NATO’s war on Yugoslavia and the expulsion of Serbs from Kosovo
In the period before the 1999 NATO attack on Yugoslavia, the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) waged a campaign to secede and establish an independent Kosovo dominated by Albanians and purged of every other ethnic group. In October 1998, KLA spokesman Bardhyl Mahmuti spelled the KLA’s vision: “We will never change our position. The independence of Kosovo is the only solution…We cannot live together [with Serbs]. That is excluded.” Once NATO’s war came to an end, the KLA set about driving out of Kosovo every non-Albanian and every pro-Yugoslav Albanian it could lay its hands on. The KLA left in its wake ...
READ MORE
The European Union, Moral Hypocrisy, and Stroking Tension in the Balkans
Over the past several years, analysts and commentators have noticed a rising tide of domestic support for the Croatian homegrown Nazi movement of the Second World War, the Ustashe, which actively exterminated Serbs, Jews, and Roma in the territory it controlled from 1941-45. Far from condemning this alarming development, the Croatian government, the European Union, and non-state actors within it have tacitly and actively supported the rising tide of sympathy towards the Ustashe. This disconnect between the ostensible “European values” of human rights and tolerance that the European Union claims to represent, and its tacit support of trends towards extremist politics ...
READ MORE
This is Croatia: A Book of Basic Info about the Country (PDF)
Read our Disclaimer/Legal Statement! Donate to Support Us We would like to ask you to consider a small donation to help our team keep working. We accept no advertising and rely only on you, our readers, to keep us digging the truth on history, global politics and international relations. Croatia in the WWII: Final solution of the Serb Question
READ MORE
“Italia Irredenta” Territories And The London Treaty (April 26th, 1915)
It was in 2015 hundred years anniversary of secret treaty signed between three Entente members of the U.K., France and the Russian Empire on the one hand, and Italy on the other, in London on April 26th, 1915 nine months after the break up the Great War of 1914−1918.[1] In a political-military effort to involve Italy into the war on their own side against the Central Powers members of Germany and Austria-Hungary within a month, these three Entente block members confirmed the Italian possession of the ex-Ottoman province of Libya (acquired by Italy in 1912) and the Dodecanese islands in the ...
READ MORE
The Authoritarian Militarization Of The Ethnic Croats: An Alternative View Of The Destruction Of Yugoslavia
The internal and much more external destruction of the former Yugoslavia in the 1990s is celebrating in 2015 its 20th years of anniversary. However, this historical and much more geopolitical event still needs a satisfactory research approach in regard to the true geopolitical reasons and political-military course of the destruction of this South Slavic and Balkan state. During the last quarter of century, the (western) global mainstream media unanimously accused Serbia and the Serbs for the national chauvinism as the main cause of the bloody wars on the territory of ex-Yugoslavia in the 1990s. However, the role and direct impact ...
READ MORE
The Vatican Bank Clean Up Is A Cover Up:  Nazi Linked Assets Ignored
Washington: Cardinal George Pell, who is Vatican Prefect of the Secretariat for the Economy, told The Tablet, a Catholic newspaper on June 17, 2016, that: ““The Vatican is committed to transparency, international cooperation and the use of contemporary international standards in financial reporting.” Cardinal Pell further praised Jean Baptiste de Franssu, the director of the Vatican Bank as one who had done “an excellent clean out job.” Pell further stated: “Pope Francis continues to insist that the financial reforms must continue.” Nowhere in Pell’s message was there any mention of the Nazi linked Ustasha Treasury first identified by the US State department in ...
READ MORE
Croatian President Kolinda Grabar Kitarovic Photographed Holding Nazi-Fascist Flag
The Independent State of Croatia (NDH) was a World War II puppet state of Germany and Italy, which was established in parts of Axis-occupied Yugoslavia. The NDH was founded on 10 April 1941, after the invasion of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers. A poster from the WWII Nazi Ustashi Independent State of Croatia with the state flag (Source: Instagram) The NDH consisted of modern-day Croatia and most of Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as some parts of modern-day Serbia and Slovenia. The regime targeted Serbs, Jews, Roma people and anti-fascist or dissident Croatians and Muslims, as part of a large-scale genocide campaign ...
READ MORE
Linguistic Engineering: New “Boshnjak” Identity and “Bosnian” Language
On November 21st, 2015 it was the 20th anniversary of the 1995 Dayton Peace Accord – a treaty signed by four Presidents (the USA, Croatia, Serbia and Bosnia-Herzegovina) that led to an end of the civil war in Bosnia-Herzegovina. As a result of the Dayton Peace Accord a new “independent and internationally recognized state” emerged: Bosnia-Herzegovina as a confederation of two political entities (the Republic of Srpska and the Muslim-Croat Federation) but ethnically strictly divided into three segments composed by the Serb, Croat and Muslim (today Boshnjak) controlled territories. In contrast to the Republic of Srpska (49% of the territory ...
READ MORE
The Jasenovac Extermination Camp: Terror in Croatia
The Axis powers invaded Yugoslavia on 6 April 1941. Vladko Maček, the leader of the Croatian Peasant Party (HSS) which was the most influential party in Croatia at the time, rejected offers by the Nazi Germany to lead the new government. On 10 April the most senior home-based Ustaša, Slavko Kvaternik, took control of the police in Zagreb and in a radio broadcast that day proclaimed the formation of the Independent State of Croatia (Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH). The new Independent State of Croatia" was established as a pro-Nazi government. It was dedicated to a clerical-fascist ideology influenced both by ...
READ MORE
Understanding Balkan Geopolitics
In his latest interview for Serbia’s National Public Service Radio, Srdja Trifkovic discusses the geopolitical significance of the Balkan Peninsula, through the centuries, in the context of today’s complex strategic equation in Southeastern Europe. Q: The Balkan Peninsula is an area where empires, cultures and religions have clashed for centuries. For starters, can we define the geostrategic significance of the Balkans, or at least to outline some of its permanent features? ST: Those permanent features are primarily geographic. The peninsula is the land bridge between Central Europe and the Middle East. At the same time, it is the point of encounter and ...
READ MORE
Déjà Vu in the Balkans
An eerily familiar sense of regional unease has crept over all the former republics of Yugoslavia. Slovenian Prime Minister Miro Cerar echoed the Balkan zeitgeist when he warned at a press conference this week that: “If the migrant crisis is not adequately controlled as agreed at the summit in Brussels there is a possibility of conflict situations between the states of the Western Balkans. It is possible that a small conflict would initiate a wider reaction because of the very difficult recent history (of the region), which is why it is very important that we solve this crisis together as no country can solve this problem by itself.” It seems like everybody knows that ...
READ MORE
Genocide against the Civilian Population of the Republic of Srpska Krajina in August 1995
The book of evidence about ethnic cleansing and policy of genocide committed by the neo-Nazi Ustashi government in Croatia against its own citizens of the Serb nationality in August 1995. That was a third genocide against the Serbs committed by the Croats in the 20th century: 1. during the WWI; 2. during the WWII; 3. in the 1990s. Today, Croatia is almost totally ethnically cleanced from all non-Croats like Kosovo and Albania from all non-Albanians. During the WWII, around 700.000 Serbs were brutally killed by the Croats and Bosnian Muslims on the territory of the Independent State of Croatia. Read our ...
READ MORE
Pope Francis at Auschwitz But Not Where Catholics Slaughtered 700,000 Serbs, Jews and Roma in WWII
Jasenovac in Croatia was the third largest World War II concentration camp in Europe by number of victims. It was operated by the Catholic and Nazi-allied Ustasha government. Wartime Croatia has been called “one great slaughterhouse.” The prisoners – mostly Serbs, Jews and Roma had their throats cut with specially designed knives, or they were killed with axes, mallets and hammers; they were also shot, or they were hung from trees or light poles. Some were burned alive in hot furnaces, boiled in cauldrons, or drowned in the River Sava. Here the most varied forms of torture were used. Finger and toe nails were pulled out with ...
READ MORE
Videos On Ex-Yugoslavia: Reverse Side Of The Truth
Four Serbian monasteries from the Middle Ages in Kosovo and Metohija still not destroyed by local Albanians Четири српска средњевековна манастира на Косову и Метохији која још увек нису срушена од стране месних Шиптара U.S.A. documentary movie about the fabricated lies by Bosnian Muslims and Croats about the civil war in Titoist Bosnia & Herzegovina and Croatia during the time of the destruction of Yugoslavia, 1991-1995. This documentary movie (26 min.) was never publically shown. Документарни филм у трајању од 26 минута производње Сједињених америчких држава о исфабрикованим лажима од стране босанских муслимана и Хрвата о грађанском рату на просторима титоистичке Босне и ...
READ MORE
Remembering A Magnum Crimen In The Independent State Of Croatia, 1941−1945
America’s “Junkyard Dogs”: Operation Storm, 20 Years On
The “Serb Question” And Its final Solution In Euro-Croatia
The Memorandum (1804) By The Karlovci Metropolitan Stevan Stratimirovic
Victims Of The (Western) Christian Faith
(Only) three examples of the 20th century the Roman Catholic Church atrocities of genocide
“We have the right to live”: NATO’s war on Yugoslavia and the expulsion of Serbs from Kosovo
The European Union, Moral Hypocrisy, and Stroking Tension in the Balkans
This is Croatia: A Book of Basic Info about the Country (PDF)
“Italia Irredenta” Territories And The London Treaty (April 26th, 1915)
The Authoritarian Militarization Of The Ethnic Croats: An Alternative View Of The Destruction Of Yugoslavia
The Vatican Bank Clean Up Is A Cover Up: Nazi Linked Assets Ignored
Croatian President Kolinda Grabar Kitarovic Photographed Holding Nazi-Fascist Flag
Linguistic Engineering: New “Boshnjak” Identity and “Bosnian” Language
The Jasenovac Extermination Camp: Terror in Croatia
Understanding Balkan Geopolitics
Déjà Vu in the Balkans
Genocide against the Civilian Population of the Republic of Srpska Krajina in August 1995
Pope Francis at Auschwitz But Not Where Catholics Slaughtered 700,000 Serbs, Jews and Roma in WWII
Videos On Ex-Yugoslavia: Reverse Side Of The Truth