An Idea of the Yugoslav Unification (2)

The Slavic Congresses

The idea of South Slavic political unification was surely a part of a broader pan-Slavic movement and ideology. If from nothing else, it can be proved from a very fact that the official flag of all kind of Yugoslavia (from 1918 to 2003) was, in fact, an insignia of the 19th century pan-Slavic movement, whose anthem was also used as an official state’s anthem of Socialist Yugoslavia (“Hey Slavs”).

The first clear political expression of an idea of pan-Slavic reciprocity, solidarity, and possible unification was done at the First Slavic Congress held in Prague from May 5th to June 3rd in 1848. It was an important pan-Slavic historical event which fostered an idea of Slavic union and, in particular, the South Slavic solidarity and reciprocity in the Balkans. The Congress deputies decided that the territorial integrity of the Austrian Empire has to be preserved, but at the same time that the national-territorial-administrative autonomies of the Slavic people within the empire should be established and respected by Vienna. A participation in the Congress sessions was taken and by one Yugoslav section composed by the delegates from Slovenia, Croatia, Dalmatia and from Serbian populated areas in South Hungary (a Vojvodina province in present-day Serbia). The Congress received a proposal by the Yugoslav delegation that the Illyrian name for the South Slavs would be replaced by the Yugoslav one.[1]

The first Yugoslav Congress (of the South Slavs from Austria-Hungary) was held in Leibach (Ljubljana) from December 1st to December 3rd, 1870. The focal congress’ decision was that the Austro–Hungarian South Slavs should negotiate with the Hungarians upon the modification of the existing Austro–Hungarian dual system (established in 1867). According to this Austro-Yugoslav proposal, a dual (Austro–Hungarian) federal system had to be transformed into the triple federal system (the Austro–Hungarian–Slavic) by the recognition of a separate Slavic part as an autonomous federal unit within the Habsburg domains.[2] At the same time, a leading political party in Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia – a Croatian National Party, issued a Declaration by which announcing that “the final aim of common desires and work of the Serbs, Bulgarians, Slovenes, and Croats should be their unification into the independent, free, popular and Yugoslav state’s community”.[3]

A Croatian-Serbian Cooperation

After the fall of absolutism in the Austrian Empire, a Yugoslav political unification was championed by Serbia’s prince Mihailo Obrenović III (1860–1868), who worked on a creation of the political-military alliance of the Balkan nations for a war against either the Ottoman Empire or the Austrian Empire what depended on the current geopolitical situation in the region. In fact, this war would take the form of a general Balkan revolution for the national liberation of all South Slavs with the political task to create a Yugoslav Empire from the Alps Mts. to the Black Sea with Serbia as its Piedmont. In essence, prince M. Obrenović’s political design of Yugoslavism had three focal aims:

  • To expel the Ottoman Empire from Europe.
  • To thwart Austrian imperialistic policy in the Balkans primarily in regard to the Austrian plans to annex a Serb-primarily populated Bosnia-Herzegovina.[4]
  • To create a national state of the South Slavs according to the principle, “the Balkans to the Balkan people”.

Undoubtedly, on the ruins of the Ottoman and the Habsburg multinational empires, prince M. Obrenović in the 1860s intended to (re)establish independent Balkan and Sub-Danubian national states and to connect them into a Yugoslav (con)federation being inspired by the unification of Italy in 1859−1861. In other words, as the most significant South Slavic national aim, a Serbia’s prince designed, in a cooperation with the Croatian and Bulgarian national representatives, the creation of a single (con)federal Yugoslav state with Serbia as its political center.[5] His leading geopolitical conviction was that only a territorially great and nationally united state’s organization could be really independent in the Balkans. However, the most prosperous chances to create such a state possessed the South Slavs as the most numerous Balkan people.[6]

It is important to stress that historically the publishing of the first political manifesto on the Yugoslav unification – Srpski narod i njegovo značenje za evropsku civilizaciju (The Serbs and Their Importance for the European Civilization written by Imbro Ignjatijević Tkalac, Leipzig, 1853) was financed by Serbia’s prince M. Obrenović III.[7]

In the 1860’s, a leading Croatian figure working for the matter of South Slavic unification became a Roman Catholic bishop and a Croatian national leader, Josip Juraj Strossmayer, who, in fact, favored as an ultimate political goal a Yugoslav unification within Austria-Hungary[8] in a form of a Greater Croatia. Nevertheless, both Croatian archbishop J. J. Strossmayer and Serbia’s prince M. Obrenović III believed that the Ottoman-ruled South Slavs could achieve their freedom only in the case of a military defeat of the Ottoman Empire in a general war against the Balkan Orthodox Christians, what would be a precondition for the final Ottoman expulsion from the Balkan peninsula and Europe.[9] However, on the other hand, J. J. Strossmayer, in contrast to both prince M. Obrenović and Serbia’s prime minister I. Garašanin, did not think that Austria-Hungary was the main opponent for the achievement of the liberal political and national aims by the Balkan nations[10] and, therefore, he advocated the preservation of the territorial integrity of Austria-Hungary.

A clear expression of the Yugoslav ideology by the Croats occurred in July 1868, when J. J. Strossmayer informed the agent of Serbia’s government that his Croatian National Party believed that the duty of Serbia was to liberate Bosnia-Herzegovina from the Ottoman Empire and, therefore, to create a foundation for the future Yugoslav political unification.[11] A project of the Yugoslav unification designed by the Croatian National Party was in essence based on the idea that in the process of a struggle for the creation of a common Yugoslav state, Serbia should assume a political and Croatia a cultural mission.[12] As a result, according to J. J. Strossmayer,  Serbia would be a Yugoslav Piedmont followed by Croatia as a Yugoslav Tuscany.[13]

A “Sub-Danubian Question”

J. J. Strossmayer, F. Rački, M. Mrazović and the other leaders of the Croatian National Party firstly supported a cultural union of the South Slavs, which would become a basis for their later national and political unification.[14] However, both pro-Yugoslav Serbs and their Croatian counterpart believed that a creation of a common Yugoslav state was the most optimal way to solve a “Yugoslav Question” in the Balkans by the unification of all Serbs and Croats into a single national state and if possible to include the Bulgarians and Slovenes as well. For example, the Croatian National Party’s ideologue, a famous historian Franjo Rački, was convinced that “divided” Croats (who lived in several Austro–Hungarian provinces and Ottoman Bosnia and Herzegovina) could be united and provide for themselves a cultural, national and political independence only in the alliance with other South Slavs.[15]

However, a crucial difference between the Serbian and the Croatian political leaders in regard to the creation of a common South Slavic state was their opposite opinions upon the question who has to play a principal role in this process. The Serbian politicians claimed this role to the Principality of Serbia, while their Croatian counterparts saw the Croats as the principal leaders of the Yugoslav unification. Consequently, according to the prior, Belgrade would be the capital of a united South Slavic state while the latter favored Zagreb as a South Slavic capital after the unification.

During the Serbian-Ottoman diplomatic crises in 1862, a Serbian politician from Vojvodina (Vajdaság), Mihailo Polit-Desančić proposed a political plan for the resolving both the “Eastern Question” and the “Sub-Danubian Question” at the same time. According to the plan, one great Balkan state has to be created gradually in three stages:

1) The Greater Serbia, composed by Bosnia, Herzegovina, Montenegro, Ancient Serbia (Kosovo-Metohija and Raška/Sandžak) and the Principality of Serbia.

2) The Yugoslav Federation, composed by Croatia and Serbia (the demarcation line between Serbia and Croatia would follow Vrbas river in Bosnia).

3) The Balkan Federation, made by the Yugoslav Federation (Serbia and Croatia) and Bulgaria.[16]

A Role of the “Serbian Bismarckism”

A way of thinking by Mihailo Polit-Desančić was tracked by the first Serbian socialist – Svetozar Marković who proposed a similar plan to solve a “Sub-Danubian Question”. He also designed three stages in the process of the creation of a common South Slavic state in the Balkans:

  • The creation of federal Serbia.
  • A Serbian-Bulgarian federation (or the Yugoslav Federation).
  • The Balkan Federation.[17]

A Serbian writer Jovan Skerlić and famous scholar Jovan Cvijić as well favored a Yugoslav federation with Serbia as its central part. One of the most important supporters of the concept of the Yugoslav federation with Belgrade as a capital was a Serbian historian and philologist Stojan Novaković, who expressed his federalist ideas in the article Nakon sto godina (After Hundred Years, 1911).[18]

Actually, all of these mentioned Serbian politicians and scholars saw Serbia as the Piedmont of either Yugoslavs (the South Slavs without Bulgarians) or all South Slavs (the Yugoslavs with Bulgarians).[19] Belgrade, therefore, had to play a role of the “Serbian Bismarckism”. Their focal arguments were based on the next three facts:

1) Only the Serbs created up to that time free South Slavic states – Serbia and Montenegro.

2) The Serbs had been in majority among all South Slavs and particularly among the Yugoslavs.

3) The Serb-populated lands had the biggest economic potentials and natural resources among all South Slavic territories.

There were many variations of the project of the unification of the South Slavic, or Yugoslav, lands towards the end of the 19th century. For example, a Serbian writer Milan Milojević in 1881 published a map of de facto a Greater Serbia, but under the name of a Greater Yugoslavia. According to him, a Greater Yugoslavia should embrace the following territories: a geographic-historical Macedonia (up to Thessaly), whole Banat (eastward to Arad), Bačka (northward to Szeged), and all Croatian and Slovenian lands including Carinthia, Trieste and some territories beyond Isonzo river. Such borders of future Yugoslavia were also accepted by the Serbs P. Niketić in 1890 and D. Putniković in 1896 but without Slovenian lands.[20] However, in all of such projects of a Greater Yugoslavia, Serbia was seen as a Yugoslav Piedmont with Belgrade as the “Serbian Bismarckism”.

 

Prof. dr Vladislav B. Sotirović

www.global-politics.eu/sotirovic

sotirovic@global-politics.eu

© Vladislav B. Sotirović 2018

 

References:

[1] Milorad Ekmečić, Stvaranje Jugoslavije 1790–1918, vol. I, Beograd, 1989, pp. 535–536.

[2] Dr. Jaroslav Šidak, Dr. Mirjana Gross, Dr. Igor Karaman, Dragovan Šepić, Povjest hrvatskog naroda 1860–1914, Zagreb, 1968, p. 45.

[3] Milorad Ekmečić, Stvaranje Jugoslavije 1790–1918, vol. II, Beograd, 1989, p. 235.

[4] Vladimir Ćorović, Borba za nezavisnost Balkana, Beograd, 1937, pp. 99−100; Simo C. Ćirković, Knjaz Mihailo Obrenović. Život i politika, Beograd, 1997, p. 203.

[5] Vasa Čubrilović, Istorija političke misli u Srbiji XIX v., Beograd, 1958, pp.  222–223.

[6] An agreement between the Serbian government and the Bulgarian Revolutionary Committee, signed in Romania in 1867, anticipated a creation of the Yugoslav Empire. In fact, the Serbian-Bulgarian federation had to be created under the government of Serbia’s Obrenović dynasty. According to the agreement between Serbia and Montenegro, Montenegro’s prince Nikola I Petrović would abdicate in Serbia’s prince M. Obrenović’s favor in the case of political unification of Serbia and Montenegro [Vasa Čubrilović, Istorija političke misli u Srbiji XIX v., Beograd, 1958, pp. 225–227; Grgur Jakšić, Vojislav Vučković, Spoljna politika Srbije za vreme vlade kneza Mihaila (Prvi balkanski savez), Beograd, 1963, pp. 281–287, 362–369, 452–455].

[7] Milorad Ekmečić, Stvaranje Jugoslavije 1790–1918, vol. II, Beograd, 1989, p. 148.

[8] Vasilije Đ. Krestić, Biskup Štrosmajer u svetlu novih izvora, Beograd, 2002.

[9] Vasilije Đ. Krestić, Srpsko-hrvatski odnosi i jugoslovenska ideja u drugoj polovini XIX veka, Beograd, 1988, p. 136.

[10] ibid.

[11] Milorad Ekmečić, Stvaranje Jugoslavije 1790–1918, vol. II, Beograd, 1989, pp. 238–239.

[12] Dr. Hans Schrekeis, “Introduction” in the collection by Anton Zollitsch, Josef Georg Strossmayer. Beiträge zur konfessionellen Situation Österreich-Ungarns im ausgehendem 19. Jahrhundert und zur Union sbemühung der Slawen bis in die Gegenwart, Salzburg, 1962, p. 5.

[13] This division of roles on “Serbian Piedmont” and “Croatian Tuscany” was made by J. J. Strossmayer in his letters to the British prime minister [R. W. Seton-Watson, The Southern Slav question and the Habsburg Monarchy, London, 1911, p. 420, “The letter sent to Gladstone on October 1st, 1876”; James Bukowski, “Jugoslavism and the Croatian National Party in 1867”, Canadian Review of Studies in Nationalism, 3, 1, 1975, p. 74].

[14] Vasilije Đ. Krestić, Srpsko-hrvatski odnosi i jugoslovenska ideja u drugoj polovini XIX veka, Beograd, 1988, p. 134.

[15] ibid.

[16] Vasa Čubrilović, Istorija političke misli u Srbiji XIX v., Beograd, 1958, pp. 258–262.

[17] ibid, pp. 300–313; Dragan Simeunović, Iz riznice otadžbinskih ideja. Slobodarski međaši naše političke misli 19. veka, Beograd, 2000, pp. 83−140.

[18] Vasa Čubrilović, Istorija političke misli u Srbiji XIX v., Beograd, 1958, p. 393.

[19] John B. Allcock claims that Nikola Pašić was the first among them [John B. Allcock, Explaining Yugoslavia, New York, 2000, p. 221].

[20] P. M. Niketić, Srpski svet u reči i slici, Beograd, 1890, p. 3; D. J. Putniković, Đakovanje i carevanje, knjiga za mladež, Beograd, 1896, p. 102.


Read our Disclaimer/Legal Statement!

Donate to Support Us

We would like to ask you to consider a small donation to help our team keep working. We accept no advertising and rely only on you, our readers, to keep us digging the truth on history, global politics and international relations.

READ MORE!
The U.S. Friendly Dictators
Many of the world’s most repressive dictators have been friends of America. Tyrants, torturers, killers, and sundry dictators and corrupt puppet-presidents have been aided, supported, and rewarded handsomely for their loyalty to US interests. Traditional dictators seize control through force, while constitutional dictators hold office through voting fraud or severely restricted elections, and are frequently puppets and apologists for the military juntas which control the ballot boxes. In any case, none have been democratically elected by the majority of their people in fair and open elections. They are democratic America’s undemocratic allies. They may rise to power through bloody ClA-backed coups ...
READ MORE
Who was US Special Representative to Kosovo Frank G. Wisner?
On December 19, 2005, US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice announced the appointment of Ambassador Frank G. Wisner as the Special Representative of the US Secretary of State to the Kosovo Status Talks. Who is Frank G. Wisner, Jr.? If his name sounds familiar that is because he is the son of Frank Gardiner Wisner, Sr., the CIA agent most responsible for the recruitment of Nazis by the US government after World War II. A former member of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), the World War II precursor to the CIA, Frank G. Wisner, Sr., was one of the most infamous ...
READ MORE
Kosovo Under Nazi Germany: Nazi-Created Albanian Security Forces in Kosovo During the World War II
Greater Albania under Nazi Germany During World War II, 35,000 to 40,000 Kosovo Albanians were recruited by Nazi Germany as part of the German occupation forces and security formations in Greater Albania, a state created by Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini that included Kosovo-Metohija, western Macedonia, and territory from Serbia and Montenegro. In Albania, there were 30,000 Albanians who were in the German occupation forces. In 1941, the German occupation forces created a Kosovo Albanian Gendarmerie with headquarters in Kosovska Mitrovica. In 1944, these forces were incorporated into the Skanderbeg Nazi SS Division. In 1942, Balli Kombetar organization battalions were established ...
READ MORE
Book Review: NATO War Crimes: “Media Lies and the Conquest of Kosovo”
Media Lies and the Conquest of Kosovo: NATO’s Prototype for the Next Wars of Globalization. Publisher: Unwritten History, Inc., New York, 2007. By Michel Collon, 276 pages, with photographs and maps. “Each war begins with media lies.” This is how Belgian journalist Michel Collon begins his analysis of the Kosovo conflict which resulted in the U.S. and NATO bombardment of Yugoslavia in 1999 and the subsequent occupation of the Serbian Kosovo province by U.S. and NATO troops. The U.S. and NATO had launched a war of aggression without United Nations approval and in violation of the territorial integrity and sovereignty of ...
READ MORE
Kosovo: An Evil Little War (Almost) All US Candidates Liked
Although the 2016 presidential election is still in the primaries phase, contenders have already brought up America’s failed foreign wars. Hillary Clinton is taking flak over Libya, and Donald Trump has irked the GOP by bringing up Iraq. But what of Kosovo? The US-led NATO operation that began on March 24, 1999 was launched under the “responsibility to protect” doctrine asserted by President Bill Clinton and UK Prime Minister Tony Blair. For 78 days, NATO targeted what was then the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia – which later split into Serbia and Montenegro – over alleged atrocities against ethnic Albanians in the ...
READ MORE
Remembering a Magnum Crimen in the Independent State of Croatia, 1941−1945
After the April War of 6−18th, 1941, the Germans, Italians, Bulgarians and Hungarians occupied and divided the territory of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia into several parts. The Germans annexed the North Slovenia and put under their direct occupation the Yugoslav part of Banat and the Central Serbia with Kosovska Mitrovica. The Italians occupied the South Slovenia, established their marionette regime in Montenegro and annexed the Gulf of Boka Kotorska, parts of Konavli and Dalmatia. The Hungarians annexed Prekomurje, Baranja and Bachka. The Bulgarians occupied the East and Central Vardar Macedonia and the South-East Serbia. The Italians established their own marionette ...
READ MORE
The Bosnian Serb “Death Camp” Fabrication
Serbian emergency shelters for Bosnian refugees sold to the public as a concentration camp to win public support for international intervention.  In August 1992, millions of people were shocked to see photographs of a supposed Bosnian Serb death camp. But the death camp story was a lie. The ITN crew had filmed from inside a fenced-in storage area. By shooting through the fence ITN created footage that gave the impression that the Bosnian men were imprisoned. With a little editing, this footage was turned into pictures that gave the impression of a death camp – media manipulation. The death camps were in ...
READ MORE
The Srebrenica Massacre: Some Victims are More Equal than Others
Last month was the 18th anniversary of the attack on the Serbian village of Kravica committed by Moslem forces from Srebrenica under the command of Naser Orić on Orthodox Christmas day, January 7, 1993. Several dozen villagers were killed in the attack, the remaining Serbian population was forced to flee to safety, and many homes were pillaged, demolished and torched during the several weeks that Kravica was forcibly occupied by neighbours from nearby Srebrenica. Regardless of arcane debates of who started the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina, on a human level the attack on the village of Kravica and the ...
READ MORE
Stalingrad: The Ideological Basis for Croatia’s Role
The September 24, 1942 visit by NDH leader Ante Pavelic to Golubinskaya outside of Stalingrad was the culmination of decades of an anti-Communist, anti-Soviet ideology. Ante Pavelic was an anti-Communist ideologue. He saw Nazi Germany, a nation based on the principle of race, as maintaining racial purity. The Third Reich “had shaken off the infections of Bolshevik racial ‘promiscuity’.” The Soviet Union threatened his core values. Germany was perceived as the antithesis of the USSR. Pavelic saw that Germany “has a showdown with the poisonous Bolshevik snake, which had started to spread its wings over all of Europe”. Germany and ...
READ MORE
NATO & the Humanitarian Dismemberment of Yugoslavia
On March 24th, 1999, NATO launched its 78-day round the clock aerial assault on the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia without the approval of the United Nations Security Council. Over a thousand NATO warplanes delivered over 2,000 airstrikes in nearly 40,000 sorties, dropping over 20,000 bombs over the former Yugoslavia, killing thousands of civilian men, women, and children, as well as upwards of a thousand Yugoslav soldiers and police.[1] [2] [3] NATO employed weapons considered criminal by international law such as depleted uranium and cluster bombs.[4] [5] [6] [7] The popular narrative is that is that the Western powers dropped these bombs ...
READ MORE
Why Putin Discriminates Kosovo Serbs?
On January 19th, 2016 on the bilateral meeting between Russia’s President Vladimir Putin and the official representatives of the European Jewish Congress the latter applied to Putin to take necessary steps for the sake to improve the generally bad position of the Jewish community on the Old Continent. Surprisingly, the President, not so much as a joke, invited both all the present-day European Jews and those Jews who left the USSR simply to immigrate to Russia. At the first glance one can say – very gentle and even democratic move by the President. However, lets a little bit to analyze the ...
READ MORE
Media Literacy 101: Kosovo and Libya
The media never merely report the news. They manipulate and distort the news. They want to tell you what and how to think. Pursuant to this role, they routinely rewrite history. A striking instance of media rewriting of history is in the reporting on Kosovo. In the AP article “US Prosecutor to Probe Kosovo Organ Trafficking”, it is reported that the alleged atrocity occurred “during Kosovo’s war for independence from Serbia” in 1999. Everyone remembers that war as one to prevent genocide and ethnic cleansing, that it was “a humanitarian intervention”. But here it is now characterized and defined as a ...
READ MORE
The European Union, Moral Hypocrisy, and Stroking Tension in the Balkans
Over the past several years, analysts and commentators have noticed a rising tide of domestic support for the Croatian homegrown Nazi movement of the Second World War, the Ustashe, which actively exterminated Serbs, Jews, and Roma in the territory it controlled from 1941-45. Far from condemning this alarming development, the Croatian government, the European Union, and non-state actors within it have tacitly and actively supported the rising tide of sympathy towards the Ustashe. This disconnect between the ostensible “European values” of human rights and tolerance that the European Union claims to represent, and its tacit support of trends towards extremist politics ...
READ MORE
Disappeared People in Kosovostan
During and after the the Kosovo conflict in 1998-1999, the KLA abducted and kidnapped over 2,000 Kosovo civilians, Serbs, Roma, and Albanians that opposed the KLA, who were tortured and murdered. Ten years after the conflict, these 2,000 remain missing. Approximately 1,000 to 1,3000 Kosovo Serbs are missing and presumed dead. How did they die? UNMIK occupation forces have been reluctant to investigate these mass murders of Kosovo civilians. What happened to them? Evidence has emerged that the KLA ran a series of prison camps, in Kosovo and in Albania itself, where they tortured and murdered Kosovo Serbs, Roma, and ...
READ MORE
Kosovo: An Evil Little War
Six Years Later, Kosovo Still Wrong In the early hours of March 24, 1999, NATO began the bombing of what was then the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. For some reason, many in the targeted nation thought the name of the operation was “Merciful Angel.” In fact, the attack was code-named “Allied Force” – a cold, uninspired and perfectly descriptive moniker. For, however much NATO spokesmen and the cheerleading press spun, lied, and fabricated to show otherwise (unfortunately, with altogether too much success), there was nothing noble in NATO’s aims. It attacked Yugoslavia for the same reason then-Emperor Bill Clinton enjoyed a ...
READ MORE
What’s in a Name? Everything and Nothing
By all accounts from Greece and Macedonia, a majority in both countries will be happy that a new name for Macedonia has been agreed upon by the governments in Athens and Skopje. After years of facing Greek vetoes to join the European Union and NATO under the name “Republic of Macedonia,” the Greek government agreed to drop its opposition, so long as Macedonia change its name to “Northern Macedonia.” Northern Greeks always objected to Macedonia’s use of that name because they believed it represented a goal of Slavic and Albanian Macedonians to lay claim to the northern Greek region that ...
READ MORE
The Balkan Vlachs (1)
“To talk of the pure origins…of any ethnic populating the Balkan Peninsula is neither justified nor serious nor scientific” (E. Ivanova, “’The Ethnic’ Conflict”, Iztok-Iztok, № 2, 1991, p. 64) Introduction This text has set itself the tasks to present historical development and current economic, cultural and political position in the Balkan societies of one specific ethnolinguistic group of the Orthodox religion - the Vlachs[1], who speaks some form of Romanian language and is called by their neighbors by different names Koutsovlahs,[2] Aromanians, Armanians,[3] Grammostens,[4] Karakachans, Cincars,[5] Arnauts, Uruks, Macedo-Romanians, Chobans,[6] etc. This pastoral ethnolinguistic group is a good example of successful peaceful ...
READ MORE
Kosovo Albanian Jihadists Planned to Attack Venice’s Rialto Bridge
Italian police broke up an alleged jihadist cell in Venice who had celebrated last week’s terrorist attack in London and planned to blow up the city’s famous Rialto Bridge in the hope of killing hundreds of tourists. In a series of overnight raids, anti-terrorism police arrested three suspects, all of them Kosovars who were living in Italy. Fisnik Bekaj, 24, Dake Haziraj, 25, and Arian Babaj, 27, were allegedly admirers of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) and were secretly recorded discussing how they were ready to die for the sake of jihad. A fourth person, an unnamed minor ...
READ MORE
Croatian Ministers Salute Criminals and Dishonour the Dead
Last week was marked by the moral acrobatics of two Croatian ministers – War Veterans’ Minister Tomo Medved and Defence Minister Damir Krsticevic – who publicly endorsed two convicted Croatian war criminals, Tomislav Mercep and Mirko Norac. A WWII Independent State of Croatia in which 700.000 Serbs were brutally killed Croatian news site Index reported last week that Mercep, who is serving a prison sentence, spent a total of 45 days at a spa instead of in jail this year and last year. As Mercep is a Croatian war veteran, Medved said he vouched for him as worthy recipient of the spa ...
READ MORE
Obama’s Imperial Presidency
Could Donald Trump already be the worst of all American presidents?  In less than two years his record on the world scene has been frightening enough: U.S. withdrawal from the Paris Accords, scuttling of the Iran nuclear treaty, moving the U.S. embassy in Israel to Jerusalem, unjustifiably punitive sanctions against Russia, Iran, and Venezuela, terror bombing of Mosul and other Iraq cities, bombastic threats against friends and enemies alike – not to mention a $54 billion gift to the Pentagon and stepped-up nuclear “modernization”.  Hard to imagine much worse. One article of faith among liberals and the corporate media is that ...
READ MORE
The U.S. Friendly Dictators
Who was US Special Representative to Kosovo Frank G. Wisner?
Kosovo Under Nazi Germany: Nazi-Created Albanian Security Forces in Kosovo During the World War II
Book Review: NATO War Crimes: “Media Lies and the Conquest of Kosovo”
Kosovo: An Evil Little War (Almost) All US Candidates Liked
Remembering a Magnum Crimen in the Independent State of Croatia, 1941−1945
The Bosnian Serb “Death Camp” Fabrication
The Srebrenica Massacre: Some Victims are More Equal than Others
Stalingrad: The Ideological Basis for Croatia’s Role
NATO & the Humanitarian Dismemberment of Yugoslavia
Why Putin Discriminates Kosovo Serbs?
Media Literacy 101: Kosovo and Libya
The European Union, Moral Hypocrisy, and Stroking Tension in the Balkans
Disappeared People in Kosovostan
Kosovo: An Evil Little War
What’s in a Name? Everything and Nothing
The Balkan Vlachs (1)
Kosovo Albanian Jihadists Planned to Attack Venice’s Rialto Bridge
Croatian Ministers Salute Criminals and Dishonour the Dead
Obama’s Imperial Presidency
Policraticus

Written by Policraticus

SHORT LEGAL DISCLAIMER: The website’s owner & editor-in-chief has no official position on any issue published at this website. The views of the authors presented at this website do not necessarily coincide with the opinion of the owner & editor-in-chief of the website. The contents of all material (articles, books, photos, videos…) are of sole responsibility of the authors. The owner & editor-in-chief of this website is not morally, scientifically or legally responsible for any inaccurate or incorrect statement in the contents of all material found on this website. The owner & editor-in-chief of this website is not responsible for the content of external internet sites. No advertising, government or corporate funding for the functioning of this website. The owner & editor-in-chief and authors are not morally, scientifically or legally responsible for any inaccurate or incorrect statement in the text and material found on the website www.global-politics.eu

Website: http://www.global-politics.eu