An Idea of the Yugoslav Unification (3)

The Yugoslav Youth Movements

The idea of the Yugoslav unification became a leading ideological force of several youth movements among all Yugoslavs either of those living in an independent Serbia and Montenegro or of those living in Austria-Hungary. Their political-ideological inspiration was a pan-Italian unification movement – Young Italy (La Giovane Italia), established by Giuseppe Mazzini in 1831 in France.

The Yugoslav youth movements flourished between 1903 and 1914 by having different regional or other names but not exclusively ethnic ones in various Yugoslav lands like Omladina (Youth), Mlada Bosna (Young Bosnia), Mlada Dalmacija (Young Dalmatia), etc.[1] The Austrian general of the Slovenian ethnic origin, Oscar Potjorek, introduced a term “Jungslawen” as a common title for all of those Yugoslav youth movements. His notification was that the most significant political wish of these pro-Yugoslav movements was to establish a single South Slavic/Yugoslav state.[2]

An appearance of Slovenski jug (Slavic South) magazine in 1903 in Belgrade marked a turning point in the process of ripening of the Yugoslav youth movements. This magazine became, in fact, in the course of time a focal meeting point of the supporters of the Yugoslav idea and the South Slavic unification. Together with a separate cultural organization under the same name, the magazine propagated an idea of a cultural integration of all Yugoslavs with the respect of their ethnic, confessional and historical differences. Actually, the movements desired a Yugoslav spiritual unification within the Yugoslav political federation as the final goal and their greatest national-political ideal.[3] The most important slogans of the magazine were: the “Union of the South Slavs” and the “Revolution at occupied lands”. The first pan-Yugoslav Youth Congress was organized in Belgrade in 1904. Three years later, also in Belgrade, the Yugoslav Revolutionary Organization was founded, which fought, according to its Statute, for the Yugoslav federal state with the autonomous provinces. Further, it was organized in Prague in 1910 the Association of the Yugoslav Clubs with the focal national aim to create a Yugoslav cultural union.[4] The Serbian and Croatian students from Vienna and Prague founded a new organization in December 1911 under the name – Serbian-Croatian National Youth. Their national idea was a Croato-Serbian; their nationality was a Serbo-Croatian.[5]

A final union of different Yugoslav youth movements into a single organization was done in the house of the Croatian writer Oscar Tartalja in Split (Dalmatia) on March 16th, 1913. In May of the same year, a pro-Yugoslav propaganda magazine of the idea of the Yugoslav unification – Ujedinjenje (Union) started to be published by the same pan-Yugoslav organization. A prime political goal of the organization was to prepare a national Yugoslav revolution that was scheduled for the year of 1917 for the very reason, in order to spoil the 50th years anniversary celebration of the Austro–Hungarian political-national settlement – Aussgleich (1867).[6]

As a matter of fact, an idea of the Yugoslav unification was accepted by the much wider South Slavic audience, especially by those pro-Yugoslavs living in Austria-Hungary, after the liberation of the South Slavic lands in the Ottoman Empire by Serbia and Montenegro in 1913 during the Balkan Wars.[7]

The Croatian Anti-Serbian National-Chauvinism and Yugoslavophobia

It is necessary to review the attitudes towards the question of the Yugoslav unification by the most influential Croatian opposition political parties represented in the Croatian-Slavonian parliament (Sabor) in Zagreb. A focal element of their national-political programs and propaganda was an extreme anti-Serbian chauvinism followed by a Yugoslavophobia for the sake of the creation of a Greater and ethnically cleaned Croatia.

The most national-chauvinistic Croatian party was the Croatian Party of Rights (Hrvatska Stranka Prava), led by an extreme Serbophobic Croatophile Ante Starčević. The main original political aim of this party was to create an independent, free, united and ethnically cleaned Greater Croatia based on self-understood ethnolinguistic and historical rights of the Croats and, therefore, including Croatia, Slavonia, Dalmatia Bosnia-Herzegovina, parts of Serbia, Montenegro, and Slovenia. This political task was radicalized when Josip Frank took over the party’s leadership. J. Frank’s political demands were to create a separate united Croatian national-administrative province within Austria-Hungary by including all South Slavic lands of Austria-Hungary into a Greater Croatia. Therefore, J. Frank’s policy of Austro-Yugoslavism was in direct service of the Austrian-Hungarian geopolitical designs in the Balkans.

Nevertheless, for the Croatian ultraright ideologists at the turn of the 20th century, Croatia should annex and incorporate into the united and single Croatian administrative province within Austria-Hungary primarily all Croatian “historical” lands (Croatia, Dalmatia, Rijeka, Istria, Dubrovnik, Slavonia, Montenegro, Bosnia, Herzegovina, Međumurje, Srem, and Bačka) followed by the rest of the lands settled by the South Slavs in the Dual Monarchy.

However, the initial slogan of the Croatian Party of Rights was “neither under Vienna or Pest, but for the free and independent Croatian state”. Any compromise with Austria-Hungary was impossible for the founder of the party (1861) – Ante Starčević, who was fighting for the creation of a Greater Croatia but outside of the Dual Monarchy or to have only the personal union with it. For him, such Greater Croatia would annex Slovenia, Bosnia, Herzegovina, Međumurje, the Military Border, Rijeka, Dalmatia, Slavonia, and Istria. He was also the creator of the concept that the purest Croats live in Bosnia-Herzegovina.[8] With regard to the problem of a national identity of the Croats, in the early period of his activity A. Starčević wrote in 1867 the booklet Bi-li k Slavstvu ili ka Hrvatstvu (To the Slavdom or the Croatdom) in which he presented the opinion that the Slavic name was an artificial fabrication. According to him, the Croats could be only Croats but not either the Slavs or the Yugoslavs.[9] For him, the Yugoslav idea was only a mask for (the Orthodox) Russian Pan-Slavic policy, which was very dangerous for the (Roman Catholic) Croatian national interest. A. Starčević was not only “a father of the Croatian nation”[10] but as well and an ideological founder of an extreme Serbophobic policy, openly advocating a genocide on the Serbs within the territories of “ethnohistorical” Croatia that in reality was done during the WWII within the territory of the Independent State of Croatia.[11]

Nevertheless, in 1895 A. Starčević resigned from a party’s membership due to the internal disagreements between the party’s leaders and formed a new party – the Pure Croatian Party of Rights (Čista hrvatska stranka prava). After his death in 1896, Josip Frank took the leadership of the (new) party becoming a new champion in the spreading of Serbophobic ideology among Croats. However, in contrast to A. Starčević and being politically and financially sponsored by the Austrian authorities, J. Frank was advocating the creation of a “Greater Croatia within a Greater Austria”[12] but not as a real independent state outside the borders of Austria–Hungary, as originally Ante Starčević wanted. Therefore, any kind of the Yugoslav ideology not sponsored by the authorities of Austria-Hungary (like Austro-Yugoslavism) was unacceptable for J. Frank and his party.

It is the fact that while A. Starčević worked on the dissolution of Austria–Hungary, as the main external enemy to the realization of the Croatian national interest (the Serbs have been, according to him, the crucial internal enemy to Croatia)[13], J. Frank worked on the preservation and even strengthening of Austria-Hungary as the best protector of the Croatian national interest. The leadership of the Pure Croatian Party of Rights never adopted any positive attitude towards the South Slavic unification into the form of an independent state. Moreover, J. Frank (who was not of the Slavic origin) had strong anti-Slavic (and especially anti-Serb) attitude, and openly worked in the favour of the Rauch regime in Croatia-Slavonia (1908–1910) against the Serbs within Austria-Hungary, having his own armed paramilitary legions (the so-called “Frank’s Legions”)[14] for the terrorizing the Serbs.

J. Frank’s Pure Croatian Party of Rights became after the Sarajevo assassination (June 28th, 1914) a strongest Croatia’s Serbophobic political and paramilitary organization, calling for the war against Serbia, with the expectation to create a Greater Croatia within Austria-Hungary after the war.[15] The war against Serbia had a very practical political aim: to thwart a creation of Serbia-led Yugoslavia. In general, J. Frank’s anti-Yugoslav ideology was framed within the propaganda that the Yugoslavism was a Serbian conspiracy against Croatia and Austria-Hungary for the sake to create a Greater Serbia with the Austrian-Hungarian lands of Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, and Bosnia-Herzegovina.[16]

However, on the other hand, a renewed A. Starčević’s Croatian Party of Rights, which became separated from J. Frank’s Pure Croatian Party of Rights just before the WWI, adopted during the time of the Great War of 1914–1918 a political attitude in favour of a dissolution of the Dual Monarchy and, therefore, preferred a creation of the common South Slavic state as the optimal solution to realize the Croatian national interest. During the anti-Serbian campaign in Zagreb in 1914 the Hrvat, a journal of A. Starčević’s Croatian Party of Rights, was openly on the Serbian side and interceded in the favor of the Yugoslav unification. For example, the Hrvat published several articles in which the socialists, anarchists, Hungarians, and freemasonry were accused as the organizers of the assassination in Sarajevo in 1914, but not Serbia. What concerns the Yugoslav unification, the most important article of this journal was published on July 4th, 1914 under the title “National Principle” in which the idea of the South Slavic ethnopolitical unification was supported.

Conclusions

The Serbs and the Croats have been the focal pillar of a common Yugoslav state created in 1918 and being reborn in 1945. The central part of the ideology of Yugoslavism was all the time an idea that these two nations possessed much more similarities than dissimilarities. It is true that the ethnic foundations from which the Serbs and the Croats were developed have been very similar. There were many areas of ex-Yugoslavia in which these two nations were living mixed together, and the similarity was expressed in the Serbian and Croatian standardized languages from the first half of the 19th century.

However, despite the fact that the ordinary Serbs and Croats intermarried and had many other contacts, ethnocultural differences among them all the time existed primarily due to their different confessional orientation. In essence, the Serbs and the Croats became delimited according to their religious affiliation: the Roman Catholics became the Croats and the Orthodox became the Serbs (Bosnian-Herzegovinian Muslims will today become Bosniaks). As a minority in Croatia, Slavonia, and Dalmatia, the Orthodox Serbs felt threatened by assimilation into the Roman Catholic Croatian majority as the Roman Catholic church exactly was working on it. Therefore, the Serbs outside Serbia very much preferred a kind of Yugoslavia in which the Serbs will have a simple majority as a guarantee for the protection of the Serbian ethnic identity. The Croats, on the other hand, required from the Serbs in Dalmatia, Croatia, and Slavonia to feel united Croatia as their homeland instead to feel Serbia as mother-state.[17] For the Croats, a post-WWI Yugoslavia was just a temporal political option in order to protect their self-proclaimed historical and ethnic territories from the Italian and Hungarian policy of irredentism. Subsequently, either Serbs or Croats needed Yugoslavia just for very practical reasons but not as a consequence of some deeper ideological convictions into a common Serbo-Croat ethnic origin, reciprocity, and solidarity.

The “Idea of Union” of the South Slavs or only the Yugoslavs (the South Slavs without the Bulgarians) in a single national state had relatively deep roots in the historical development of political ideas among the South Slavs as it dates back in 1794. This idea had several stages of development and the features of expression but, basically, the supporters of the “Idea of Union” primarily understood the Serbo-Croatian cultural, national and political cooperation, reciprocity, solidarity and finally (political) unification as a “backbone” of any kind of a South Slavic state’s organization (with the Bulgarians or not). The idea was imagined to be realized in two phases:

1) The Yugoslav unification (the Serbs, Slovenes, and Croats).

2) The South Slavic unification (the Yugoslavs and Bulgarians).

However, historically, there were two ideas of the Yugoslavism: the Austrian and the South Slavic. The first advocated the solution of the Yugoslav Question within Austria (Austria-Hungary from 1867) while the second outside of the Dual Monarchy. Which idea will finally win depended primarily on the result of the military conflict between Austria-Hungary and Serbia. Finally, the second option was realized due to the results of the Great War in which Austria-Hungary disappeared as a state.

Undoubtedly, Serbia and the Serbs in general, mostly suffered during the WWI among all South Slavs and Serbia as a country paid the highest price for the post-war Yugoslav unification even sacrificing her statehood and internationally recognized independence for a newly established state which became in practice only a patchwork of many unbridgeable historical, cultural, regional, ethnic, and ideological differences. It became clear from the very beginning of the existence of a new state (the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, from 1929 the Kingdom of Yugoslavia) that it is going to be impossible mission to organize a functional state due to its many differences just by the imposition of the ideology of an “integral Yugoslavism”.[18]

 

Prof. Dr Vladislav B. Sotirović

www.global-politics.eu/sotirovic

sotirovic@global-politics.eu

© Vladislav B. Sotirović 2018

 

References:

[1] Milorad Ekmečić, Stvaranje Jugoslavije 1790–1914, vol. II, Beograd, 1989, p. 523.

[2]General Potjorek to Bilinsky”, Sarajevo, July 1st, 1914, Archives of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sarajevo, Fond ZMF, 778; Đuro Šurmin, “Jugoslovenska omladina posle aneksije BiH 1908”, Kalendar “Sv. Sava”, Zagreb, 1934, p. 4; Tin Ujević, Borba nacionalističke omladine, Beograd, 1930, p. 88.

[3] Milorad Ekmečić, Stvaranje Jugoslavije 1790–1918, vol. II, Beograd, 1989, pp. 537–538.

[4] Ivan Janez Kolar, Preporodovci 1912–1914, 1914–1918, Kamnik, 1930, p. 167.

[5] Dr. Jaroslav Šidak, Dr. Mirjana Gross, Dr. Igor Karaman, Dragovan Šepić, Povjest hrvatskog naroda 1860–1914, Zagreb, 1968, “Hrvatski narod u razdoblju od g. 1903 do 1914”, p. 106.

[6] Pero Slijepčević, Mlada Bosna, “Napor Bosne i Hercegovine za oslobođenje i ujedinjenje”, Sarajevo, 1929, p. 192.

[7] On the role of Serbia and Montenegro in the Balkan Wars of 1912−1913 see in [Борислав Ратковић, Митар Ђуришић, Саво Скоко, Србија и Црна Гора у Балканским ратовима 1912−1913, Друго издање, Београд, 1972].

[8] Trpimir Macan, Povijest hrvatskoga naroda, II. izdanje, Zagreb, 1992, p. 300.

[9] Franjo Tuđman, Hrvatska u monarhističkoj Jugoslaviji, Knjiga I, Zagreb, 1993, p. 31.

[10] One of the most important Croatian poets of that time, Silvije Strahimir Kranjčević, devoted his poem about Moses exactly to Ante Starčević who was seen in his eyes as a Saviour of the Croatian nation [Ivo Goldstein, Croatia: A History, London, 1999, pp. 98−99].

[11] ibid., pp. 135−140.

[12] Riječki Novi list, V/1911, No. 301, December 19th, 1911.

[13] Mirjana Gross, Agneza Szabo, Prema hrvatskome građanskom društvu: Društveni razvoj u civilnoj Hrvatskoj i Slavoniji šezdesetih i sedamdesetih godina 19. stoljeća, Zagreb, 1992, 157−170.

[14] Frano Supilo, Politika u Hrvatskoj, Zagreb, 1953, pp. 206–208; Antun Radić, Sabrana djela,vol. XVIII, Zagreb, 1938, pp. 187, 335–336.

[15] More information about it in [Većeslav Wilder, Dva smjera u hrvatskoj politici, Zagreb, 1918].

[16] Josip Horvat, Politička povijest Hrvatske, Prvi dio, Zagreb, 1990, p. 282.

[17] Ivo Goldstein, Croatia: A History, London, 1999, pp. 93−94.

[18] Andrej Mitrović, Prvi svetski rat, Prekretnice novije srpske istorije, Kragujevac, 1995, p. 89.


Read our Disclaimer/Legal Statement!

Donate to Support Us

We would like to ask you to consider a small donation to help our team keep working. We accept no advertising and rely only on you, our readers, to keep us digging the truth on history, global politics and international relations.

READ MORE!
Dusseldorf Axe Attacker: “Fatmir H.”, Muslim Albanian from Kosovo
If a German had shown up in London in 1944 and opened fire, would police have ruled out any connection to Nazism? Fatmir H. comes from a hotbed of jihad activity. The Islamic State and al-Qaeda have issued repeated calls for Muslims in West to murder civilians. We have seen the perpetrators of numerous jihad terror attacks declared mentally ill, often absurdly. In light of all that, the possibility that this was a jihad terror attack cannot be ruled out. “‘He jumped out of the train and started to strike at people with an AXE’: Horror in Dusseldorf as Kosovan attacker ...
READ MORE
Those Who have Erected the Monument to Bill Clinton Now Flee From the Valley of Tears
Former slogan that has been so thunderously shouted within  pre-election debates, and that was the last glimmer of declarative patriotism, dear both to politicians and football fans, by the development of the situation these days gets quite a different meaning. Kosovo is Serbia sometimes means that the Serbs, if not otherwise, at least in their souls will not give up the holy Serbian land. However, it might sound completely different today.  Columns of Albanians from Kosovo carrying everything they own, leave Kosovo, pushing to catch last buses for a better life, moving towards Subotica, in order to try to reach some ...
READ MORE
UN, France & US in Libya and Ivory Coast: Using Violence and Islamic Forces Just Like Kosovo
Albanian terror in Kosovo against the Serbs from June 1999 up to the end of 2000 The current problems in Libya and Ivory Coast are complex and clearly the opposition has different aspirations.  After all, both sides are involved in a bloody conflict and the use of violence is being used by each faction in these divided nations.  Therefore, it appears that the “new democratic warriors” of peace and freedom carry guns and kill their enemies, just like their enemies would kill them. This article is not about defending the leaders of either nations and clearly the leader of Libya is known ...
READ MORE
Balkanisation, Myanmar and the US “Pivot to Asia” Directed against China
During the 1990s, the United States planned to break up Yugoslavia and build America’s largest military base in Kosovo (Camp Bondsteel) a strategic location giving the US access to the oil-rich Caspian Sea, which would also threaten Russia’s defence capabilities. In order to achieve their goals, the CIA imported fighters from Afghanistan who went on a rampage of killing and destruction. A mass media disinformation campaign blamed a proportion of the crimes of the CIA-backed fighters on their victims – mostly Serbs. Between 1992 and 1995, CIA terrorists murdered 2383 Serbs in Srebrenica. When the Bosnian Serb army finally arrived in ...
READ MORE
George Soros’s False Flag Factories
Global hedge fund tycoon and political provocateur George Soros is leading a war of symbols, namely flags and banners either resurrected or conjured up by his myriad non-profit groups, to stir religious, racial, and ethnic tensions the world over. From the Serbian OTPOR! movement and its clenched-fist symbol adopted by protests groups around the world to the menacing black and white flag of the Islamic State, which first appeared during the Soros-backed «Arab Spring» rebellions, Soros’s «false flag» factories have been running at break-neck production speeds. Soros and his acolytes saw the importance of symbology in the writings of Gene Sharp ...
READ MORE
Rape and War: The US Experience
On July 9, 2006, the U.S. Army charged five US soldiers with the rape and murder of a 14-year-old Iraqi girl, Abeer Qasim Hamza al-Janabi, and the murder of her parents and 5-year-old sister. This brutal and senseless war crime raises the issue of rape in war. The lynchpin of US propaganda and infowar spin is that Soviet troops raped German women when the Red Army took Berlin in 1945. This was meant to take away from the Russian military achievement in taking Berlin. The Russian soldiers were “rapists” while US soldiers were “liberators”, handing out chocolate bars, chewing gum, ...
READ MORE
Economic War Crimes: Dismantling Former Yugoslavia, Recolonizing Bosnia-Herzegovina
As heavily-armed US and NATO troops enforced the peace in Bosnia, the press and politicians alike portrayed Western intervention in the former Yugoslavia as a noble, if agonizingly belated, response to an outbreak of ethnic massacres and human rights violations. In the wake of the November 1995 Dayton peace accords, the West was eager to touch up its self-portrait as savior of the Southern Slavs and get on with “the work of rebuilding” the newly “sovereign states.” But following a pattern set early on, Western public opinion had been skillfully misled. The conventional wisdom exemplified by the writings of former US ...
READ MORE
Remember March 24th-June 10th, 1999
Remember NATO's aggression on the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from March 24th to June 10th, 1999 when several principles and articles of the Charter of United Nations were blatantly violated by the NATO's gangsters led by the US' bandits. Serbia is the only country in the whole world that was bombarded by Germany (1941), US/UK (1944) and NATO (1999). Here, you can see a basic photo collection of the event: PHOTO COLLECTION Read our Disclaimer/Legal Statement! Donate to Support Us We would like to ask you to consider a small donation to help our team keep working. We accept no advertising and rely only on you, ...
READ MORE
NATO & the Humanitarian Dismemberment of Yugoslavia
On March 24th, 1999, NATO launched its 78-day round the clock aerial assault on the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia without the approval of the United Nations Security Council. Over a thousand NATO warplanes delivered over 2,000 airstrikes in nearly 40,000 sorties, dropping over 20,000 bombs over the former Yugoslavia, killing thousands of civilian men, women, and children, as well as upwards of a thousand Yugoslav soldiers and police.[1] [2] [3] NATO employed weapons considered criminal by international law such as depleted uranium and cluster bombs.[4] [5] [6] [7] The popular narrative is that is that the Western powers dropped these bombs ...
READ MORE
World Conquest: The United States’ Global Military Crusade since 1945
GR Editor’s Note The following article by professor Eric Waddell was first published twelve years ago by Global Research in December 2003 in the immediate wake of the invasion and occupation of  Iraq by US and British forces, with a postscript added in 2007.  The article provides an incisive historical perspective on America’s “long war” against humanity, which is being carried out under a fake humanitarian mandate. Let us be under no illusions as to the intent of the US and its allies. We are dealing with World Conquest under the disguise of a “Global War on Terrorism”.  Michel Chossudovsky, December 24, ...
READ MORE
The Srebrenica Massacre as Paradigmatic Media Spin
Transcript of presentation by the author at the Conference of Independent Journalists’ Association for Peace, Vienna, Austria, May 2015. This year the twentieth anniversary of the massacre in Srebrenica is being observed. On July 11 a huge spectacle will take place at the Srebrenica Memorial center specially constructed for that purpose. It will feature the presence of most of the rather insignificant individuals purporting to be political leaders in the region and the Western-dominated world. Their speeches, which never vary substantially, will be infused with the predictable platitudes. I propose to deal with some aspects of the Srebrenica narrative from the standpoint ...
READ MORE
Noel Malcolm: “Kosovo – A Short History”, 1999. A History Written with an Attempt to Support Albanian Territorial Claims in the Balkans (First part)
Noel Malcolm – Kosovo – A Short History A history written with an attempt to support Albanian territorial claims in the Balkans   A Short History of Kosovo by Noel Malcolm is usually considered as one of the prime historical sources on the history of the province. In fact, this book is an example of the History with a political attitude because it is not by chance that Malcolm who attacks the “myths” of Serbian history is at the same time a president of the Anglo-Albanian Association and one of the strongest supporters of independence of Kosovo. Being far from an objective scientific ...
READ MORE
The European Union, Moral Hypocrisy, and Stroking Tension in the Balkans
Over the past several years, analysts and commentators have noticed a rising tide of domestic support for the Croatian homegrown Nazi movement of the Second World War, the Ustashe, which actively exterminated Serbs, Jews, and Roma in the territory it controlled from 1941-45. Far from condemning this alarming development, the Croatian government, the European Union, and non-state actors within it have tacitly and actively supported the rising tide of sympathy towards the Ustashe. This disconnect between the ostensible “European values” of human rights and tolerance that the European Union claims to represent, and its tacit support of trends towards extremist politics ...
READ MORE
What’s in a Name? Everything and Nothing
By all accounts from Greece and Macedonia, a majority in both countries will be happy that a new name for Macedonia has been agreed upon by the governments in Athens and Skopje. After years of facing Greek vetoes to join the European Union and NATO under the name “Republic of Macedonia,” the Greek government agreed to drop its opposition, so long as Macedonia change its name to “Northern Macedonia.” Northern Greeks always objected to Macedonia’s use of that name because they believed it represented a goal of Slavic and Albanian Macedonians to lay claim to the northern Greek region that ...
READ MORE
The Murderers of Serbian Children in Goraždevac Remain “Unknown”
Families want to know if one of the reasons of halting the investigation was, as they claim, the fact that the murderer came from the village of Ćuška, the birthplace of the former commander of the Kosovo Liberation Army and the current minister of Kosovo’s security forces, Agim Ceku. GORAŽDEVAC, SRNA – Tuesday marks the 12th anniversary of the murder of Serbian children in Goraždevac near Peć. On August 13, 2003, Ivan Jovović aged 19 and Pantelija Dakić aged 12 were taking a swim in the Bistrica River when they were shot dead with automatic weapons. Their peers Đorde Ugrenović aged 20, ...
READ MORE
The 1929 Lateran Treaty: B. Mussolini’s Faith-Based Initiative
This Wednesday, February 11 [2009], will mark the 80th anniversary of the signing of the Lateran Treaty and related agreements, in which Benito Mussolini’s Italy recognized the Vatican as an independent state and showered it with money and other benefits. Mussolini got what he paid for. For well over a thousand years prior to 1929, Popes exercised absolute civil authority over central Italy, a region known as the “Papal States.” Their power was based on a document called the “Donation of Constantine,” in which the 4th century Roman emperor Constantine was supposed to have granted the successors of St. Peter control ...
READ MORE
How Holocaust Revisionists Remake History as Nationalist Sham
The consumption of history seems to be more widespread than ever: from general-interest history magazines and historical dramas and documentaries to historical fiction, popular history seems, well, unprecedentedly popular. The evolution of the TV historian reflects this trend: where once real working historians who had written serious books hosted television programmes, these days they are as likely to be photogenic media presenters with minimal, if any, actual history qualifications. The attraction of history and being a historian are not hard to work out. In the public imagination, historians are usually considered to be intelligent, objective people, if a little eccentric, who tell ...
READ MORE
Aftermath of the US-NATO War on Yugoslavia: The Unspoken Impacts of Radioactive Depleted Uranium Ammunition
More than a decade and a half after the US-NATO- under international law illegal – war aggression against Yugoslavia using highly toxic and radioactive uranium projectiles, the enormity of this war crime becomes clear: In Serbia, aggressive cancer among young and old has reached epidemic proportions. The suffering of the people cries out to heaven. Particularly affected is the south of Serbia and Kosovo. According to the Serbian Ministry of Health, every day a child suffers from cancer. The entire country is contaminated. By harming the genetic material (DNA) generation after generation,  malformed children will be born. Knowingly and willfully, a genocide ...
READ MORE
Croatia and Nazi Germany
While this excellent analysis by Srdja Trifkovic focuses on the “internal” history of Croatia, it is important to note that four days after Nazi Germany declared war on the United States, Hitler’s staunch ally the Independent State of Croatia (NDH) declared war on both the United Kingdom and on the United States on December 14, 1941. What makes this especially significant is that less than three years later, on April 16, 1944, which was Easter Sunday for the Serbian Orthodox, the Anglo-American forces bombed Belgrade, the capital of their loyal and devoted ally Serbia, even though there was no strategic ...
READ MORE
Violation of Human Rights of Serbs in the Province of Kosovo and Metohija
The struggle for peace and the struggle for full respect of universal human rights, as defined by UN Declaration on protection of human rights, are interdependent and non-separable. Violations of sovereignty and territorial integrity, military interventions, aggressions and occupations go hand in hand with massive violations of the basic human rights. It is clear that there are no humanitarian military interventions. NATO military aggression against Yugoslavia ( Serbia ) which started March 24rth, 1999 was launched to allegedly protect human rights of Kosovo Albanians. It was carried out in blatant violation of the basic principals of International Law and without approval of ...
READ MORE
Dusseldorf Axe Attacker: “Fatmir H.”, Muslim Albanian from Kosovo
Those Who have Erected the Monument to Bill Clinton Now Flee From the Valley of Tears
UN, France & US in Libya and Ivory Coast: Using Violence and Islamic Forces Just Like Kosovo
Balkanisation, Myanmar and the US “Pivot to Asia” Directed against China
George Soros’s False Flag Factories
Rape and War: The US Experience
Economic War Crimes: Dismantling Former Yugoslavia, Recolonizing Bosnia-Herzegovina
Remember March 24th-June 10th, 1999
NATO & the Humanitarian Dismemberment of Yugoslavia
World Conquest: The United States’ Global Military Crusade since 1945
The Srebrenica Massacre as Paradigmatic Media Spin
Noel Malcolm: “Kosovo – A Short History”, 1999. A History Written with an Attempt to Support Albanian Territorial Claims in the Balkans (First part)
The European Union, Moral Hypocrisy, and Stroking Tension in the Balkans
What’s in a Name? Everything and Nothing
The Murderers of Serbian Children in Goraždevac Remain “Unknown”
The 1929 Lateran Treaty: B. Mussolini’s Faith-Based Initiative
How Holocaust Revisionists Remake History as Nationalist Sham
Aftermath of the US-NATO War on Yugoslavia: The Unspoken Impacts of Radioactive Depleted Uranium Ammunition
Croatia and Nazi Germany
Violation of Human Rights of Serbs in the Province of Kosovo and Metohija
Policraticus

Written by Policraticus

SHORT LEGAL DISCLAIMER: The website’s owner & editor-in-chief has no official position on any issue published at this website. The views of the authors presented at this website do not necessarily coincide with the opinion of the owner & editor-in-chief of the website. The contents of all material (articles, books, photos, videos…) are of sole responsibility of the authors. The owner & editor-in-chief of this website is not morally, scientifically or legally responsible for any inaccurate or incorrect statement in the contents of all material found on this website. The owner & editor-in-chief of this website is not responsible for the content of external internet sites. No advertising, government or corporate funding for the functioning of this website. The owner & editor-in-chief and authors are not morally, scientifically or legally responsible for any inaccurate or incorrect statement in the text and material found on the website www.global-politics.eu

Website: http://www.global-politics.eu