Macedonization of Macedonia

Hits: 189

As a matter of historical fact, a separate Macedonian ethnonational identity did not exist until the second half of the 19th century. This is partly due to the fact that Macedonia was ruled by Ottoman Empire for a longer period of time: from 1371 to 1912. It is known that Ottoman authorities did not recognize any kind of ethnonational or ethnolinguistic identities but rather only the confessional (millet-system). Therefore, the Christians of Macedonia were not differentiated between themselves on the ethnic bases. Furthermore, Macedonian territories were inhabited by different ethnic, linguistic and religious groups (Slavic- and Greek-speaking Christians, Turkish- and Albanian-speaking Muslims, Vlachs, Jews, and Gypsies). Ottoman authorities, however, divided the population of the empire into the groups based on religion (“millets”), rather than on language, ethnicity or nationality.[1] The majority of Slavs living in Macedonia in the mid-19th century had no strong ethnic or national consciousness. Most of them called themselves just as Christians, essentially meaning to be non-Muslim but nothing more. However, some of them would accept a Greek identity, others Serbian or Bulgarian but very rare Macedonian.[2]

During the first half of the 19th century, no clear distinction could be made between Bulgarian and Macedonian intelligentsia as the majority of Slavic writers of that period were united in their opposition to Greek religious and cultural supremacy. The fact was that Greeks had the hegemony over Orthodox Christian millet in the Balkan provinces of Ottoman Empire as there was only recognized a Greek Orthodox church. However, in the first half of the 19th century firstly Serbian autonomous Orthodox church was recognized as separate from Greek and later in 1870, an independent Bulgarian Exarchate became established by Ottoman sultan.[3] Subsequently, the year of 1870 became a breaking-point in regard to the struggle for Macedonia between Bulgaria and Greece to be accompanied by Serbia after the Berlin Congress in 1878.

From the 1870s Bulgaria’s elites and Macedonia’s intellectuals started gradually more and more to grow apart and, as a result, a separate Macedonian identity started to be formed very much based on Bulgarian policy of promoting Macedonian regional identity as a separate from Greek ethnonational one. This differentiation took a technical form in a slightly different standardization of their linguistic medium as Macedonians insisted to use a separate book language from standardized Bulgarian one and, therefore, started to publish books in their own linguistic medium. Оn the political field, Sofia after 1878 strove to develop regional Macedonian revolutionary organizations for the liberation from Ottoman administration with the final aim to annex whole Macedonia according to the example of East Rumelia in 1885. Therefore, the first “committees” for the liberation of Macedonia were established in Sofia in the 1880s. Their functions included educational, religious and military activities and were concentrated on a political agitation on both the local and European levels. In 1893 the revolutionary organization for the liberation of Macedonia and Adrianople’s region was established in Thessaloniki under the official and full name – Internal Macedonian-Adrianopolitan Revolutionary Organisation, (IMARO). The 1905 IMARO’s Constitution was clearly written in the Bulgarian language. The organization had an aggressive and even violent agenda of national agitation and organized an anti-Ottoman rebellion in Krushevo for the liberation of Macedonia on August 2nd, 1903 (Ilinden Uprising)[4] when a formal Macedonian independence was declared in a form of proclaimed “Republic of Krushevo” which existed for ten days. Nevertheless, IMARO was, in practice, creating a strong Macedonian identity, albeit initially a non-ethnic one, among a Slavonic population of historical-geographical Macedonia. Such politics inevitably facilitated the process of Macedonization and deBulgarization of Macedonian Slavs. Therefore, as a result, a majority of Yugoslav Macedonia’ Slavs (today FYROM) and the post-WWII Slavic diaspora from both Vardar and Aegean Macedonia nowadays consider themselves ethnic Macedonians rather than ethnic Bulgarians.

A time of Macedonization of Macedonia by the creation of Macedonian regional feelings, which after the WWII became transformed into the ethnonational consciousness, was also a time of the struggle over Macedonia between Greece, Bulgaria, and Serbia from 1870 to 1913. This struggle started with the establishment of an independent Bulgarian Orthodox Church (Exarchate) in 1870 and finished by the division of the territory of historical-geographical Macedonia between them after the Second Balkan War in 1913. Until 1870 Greeks had a hegemony over the Orthodox Christian millet in the European part of Ottoman Empire as only a Greek Orthodox Church (Patriarchate) existed up to 1870 when an autonomous Bulgarian Orthodox Church was established. Subsequently, Christian Orthodox communities in Macedonia had a choice after 1870 to affiliate themselves either with Greek or with Bulgarian church.[5] An actual cultural-national struggle for the allegiance of the population of Macedonia went on between Greece, Bulgaria, and Serbia as, for instance, Serbian and Greek schools and churches were established in the territory of Macedonia in order to encourage a particular ethnolinguistic and religious identity.[6] By the 1890s even guerrilla groups, sent out by Greece, Bulgaria, and Serbia to fight Ottoman authorities, terrorized the local population and tried to convince them of their true ethnonational identity. A struggle between Greece, Bulgaria, and Serbia for Macedonia was continuing in the following years and reached a climax during the Balkan Wars in 1912−1913. The struggle was finally ended by the partition of a historical-geographical territory of Macedonia between Bulgaria (annexed Pirin Macedonia), Greece (annexed Aegean Macedonia) and Serbia (annexed Vardar Macedonia).[7]

 

Prof. Dr Vladislav B. Sotirović

www.global-politics.eu/sotirovic

sotirovic@global-politics.eu

© Vladislav B. Sotirović 2018

 

References:

[1] Loring M. Danforth, “Claims to Macedonian Identity: The Macedonian Question and the Breakup of Yugoslavia”, Anthropology Today, Vol. 9, No. 4, 1993, 3−10.

[2] Victor Roudometof, “Nationalism and Identity Politics in the Balkans: Greece and the Macedonian Question”, Journal of Modern Greek Studies, Vol. 14, No. 2, 1996, 253−301.

[3] Loring M. Danforth, “Claims to Macedonian Identity: The Macedonian Question and the Breakup of Yugoslavia”, Anthropology Today, Vol. 9, No. 4, 1993, 3−10.

[4] Anastasia Karakasidou, “The Burden of the Balkans”, Anthropological Quarterly, Vol. 75, No. 3, 2002, 575−589.

[5] Loring M. Danforth, “Claims to Macedonian Identity: The Macedonian Question and the Breakup of Yugoslavia”, Anthropology Today, Vol. 9, No. 4, 1993, 3−10.

[6] James Pettifer, “The New Macedonian Question”, International Affairs, Vol. 68, No. 3, 1992, 475−485.

[7] Loring M. Danforth, “Claims to Macedonian Identity: The Macedonian Question and the Breakup of Yugoslavia”, Anthropology Today, Vol. 9, No. 4, 1993, 3−10.


Read our Disclaimer/Legal Statement!

Donate to Support Us

We would like to ask you to consider a small donation to help our team keep working. We accept no advertising and rely only on you, our readers, to keep us digging the truth on history, global politics and international relations.

[wpedon id=”4696″ align=”left”]

READ MORE!
Israel is a War Criminal
Origins of images: Facebook, Twitter, Wikimedia, Wikipedia, Flickr, Google, Imageinjection, Public Domain & Pinterest.Read our Disclaimer/Legal Statement!Donate to Support UsWe would like to ask you to consider a small donation to help our team keep working. We accept no advertising and rely only on you, our readers, to keep us digging the truth on history, global politics and international relations.[wpedon id="4696" align="left"]Save
READ MORE
Libya: From Africa’s Richest State under Gaddafi, to Failed State after NATO Intervention
This article was first published on October 19, 2014This week marks the three-year anniversary of the Western-backed assassination of Libya’s former president, Muammar Gaddafi, and the fall of one of Africa’s greatest nations.In 1967 Colonel Gaddafi inherited one of the poorest nations in Africa; however, by the time he was assassinated, Gaddafi had turned Libya into Africa’s wealthiest nation. Libya had the highest GDP per capita and life expectancy on the continent. Less people lived below the poverty line than in the Netherlands.After NATO’s intervention in 2011, Libya is now a failed state and its economy is in shambles. As ...
READ MORE
CIA: The Corrupt and Ignorant Agency
The American taxpayers have been fleeced for almost seventy years by a so-called «intelligence» agency that has systematically violated the US Constitution, broken practically every federal law on the books, and penetrated virtually every facet of American life. The Central Intelligence Agency’s creation was bemoaned by its creator, President Harry S Truman, who, in a fit of personal angst following the 1963 assassination of President John F Kennedy, wrote in a newspaper column,“I never had any thought that when I set up the CIA that it would be injected into peacetime cloak and dagger operations… I, therefore, would like to see the ...
READ MORE
How Belgium is being Forced to Confront the Bloody Legacy of King Leopold II
As 10,000 people took to the streets of Brussels on Sunday (7 June 2020) to protest as part of the Black Lives Matter movement, there was one landmark which drew their ire more than any other: the equestrian statue of King Leopold II outside Belgium’s royal palace.“Murderer!” the protesters cried as they climbed the statue and waved the flag of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Had the statue been flimsy enough to pull down they would have done it, just as fellow BLM protesters toppled Edward Colston’s statue across the channel in Bristol. Estimates vary, but the consensus figure is ...
READ MORE
An Isolated Tyrannical Regime – Not Pyongyang, It’s Washington
If Pentagon chief James Mattis was seeking to reassure the world of American restraint in the North Korea crisis, he clumsily did the opposite. The US Defense Secretary was speaking after intense discussions with President Trump and other senior military officials in the White House Situation Room following the sixth nuclear test carried out by North Korea on Sunday.Mattis emerged from the meeting to say that any threat from North Korea to the United States and its allies would be met with an «overwhelming military response». He then added – with a weirdly presumed ethical tone – that the US «was not looking to ...
READ MORE
A Brief History of Palestine and Israel
While it is certainly true that the Jewish people have relatively deep roots in the land that is today known as Palestine and Israel, this area has been a crossroads since the origins of the human species. In fact the oldest known Homo sapiens fossil outside of Africa was recently found in modern-day Israel, dated at approximately 180,000 years old. Neanderthal bones have also been found in the Levant.In historical times the Palestine region or parts of it have been controlled by numerous different peoples and regional powers, including the Canaanites, Amorites, Ancient Egyptians, Israelites, Moabites, Ammonites, Philistines, Assyrians, Babylonians, ...
READ MORE
Bosnian Muslims Suppressed Their Dirty Nazi Legacy
The Bosnian Muslim Nazi SS Division Handzar, above in 1943, was made up of 18,000 Bosnian Muslims and 300 Albanian Muslims. Bosnian Muslims were not Nazi and fascist “collaborators”, but Nazis themselves. The Bosnian Muslim Government and Army of Alija Izetbegovic reformed and reconstituted the Bosnian Muslim Nazi SS Division Handzar from World War II. Contrary to the nonsensical screed of Croat Marko Attila Hoare, whose mother is Croatian Marxist and Ustasha apologist Branka Magas, and other Bosnian Muslim apologists and propagandists, there is overwhelming and abundant proof of the existence of a “Handzar Divizija” in the Bosnian Muslim Army. The existence of ...
READ MORE
Hillary Clinton and the Brutal Murder of Gaddafi
On October 20, 2011, Libya’s Muammar al-Gaddafi was brutally murdered by a mob of NATO-backed ‘rebels’, after first being beaten and violated in the most barbaric fashion. History leaves no doubt that not only was the Libyan leader murdered on this day but Libya itself.The regime-change crew who dominate Western governments have a long indictment sheet against their names. Since 9/11 they have wrought havoc and human misery on a grand scale in their determination to reshape and own a world that has never been theirs to own. Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya – Syria currently embroiled in a pitiless conflict for ...
READ MORE
Weapons of Mass Destruction
Origins of images: Facebook, Twitter, Wikimedia, Wikipedia, Flickr, Google, Imageinjection, Public Domain & Pinterest.Read our Disclaimer/Legal Statement!Donate to Support UsWe would like to ask you to consider a small donation to help our team keep working. We accept no advertising and rely only on you, our readers, to keep us digging the truth on history, global politics and international relations.[wpedon id="4696" align="left"]Save
READ MORE
Stalingrad: The Ideological Basis for Croatia’s Role
The September 24, 1942 visit by NDH leader Ante Pavelic to Golubinskaya outside of Stalingrad was the culmination of decades of an anti-Communist, anti-Soviet ideology. Ante Pavelic was an anti-Communist ideologue. He saw Nazi Germany, a nation based on the principle of race, as maintaining racial purity. The Third Reich “had shaken off the infections of Bolshevik racial ‘promiscuity’.” The Soviet Union threatened his core values. Germany was perceived as the antithesis of the USSR. Pavelic saw that Germany “has a showdown with the poisonous Bolshevik snake, which had started to spread its wings over all of Europe”. Germany and ...
READ MORE
Is it an Empire? See the Facts
Origins of images: Facebook, Twitter, Wikimedia, Wikipedia, Flickr, Google, Imageinjection, Public Domain & Pinterest.Read our Disclaimer/Legal Statement!Donate to Support UsWe would like to ask you to consider a small donation to help our team keep working. We accept no advertising and rely only on you, our readers, to keep us digging the truth on history, global politics and international relations.[wpedon id="4696" align="left"]SaveSave
READ MORE
What’s in a Name? Everything and Nothing
By all accounts from Greece and Macedonia, a majority in both countries will be happy that a new name for Macedonia has been agreed upon by the governments in Athens and Skopje. After years of facing Greek vetoes to join the European Union and NATO under the name “Republic of Macedonia,” the Greek government agreed to drop its opposition, so long as Macedonia change its name to “Northern Macedonia.” Northern Greeks always objected to Macedonia’s use of that name because they believed it represented a goal of Slavic and Albanian Macedonians to lay claim to the northern Greek region that ...
READ MORE
The Dark Side of the Empire
One of rock's greatest albums is Pink Floyd's 1973 Dark Side of the Moon.This somber, surrealistic album paints a picture of what society has become, both 44 years ago and now. Such is this present American Empire, replete with our phony wars, excessive militaristic mindset and of course the drive for super wealth by greedy corporations and equally greedy individuals.Those of us who "knew better" foresaw the economic bubble burst of 2008 years before it occurred. So many of our friends and neighbors cared not a damn about the phony wars on Iraq and Afghanistan, and later on against Libya and now proxy ...
READ MORE
Russia’s Geopolitical Interests in the Balkans
First of all, taking into consideration the particular region of the Balkans in the context of Russia's national interests, we should consult official documents reflecting the wishes and intentions of the government. It is therefore necessary to consider Russia’s foreign policy doctrine. Foreign policy strategy The Russian Federation's previous foreign policy doctrine was made public on July 15th, 2008. Russian objectives were marked as the following: - Impacting global processes in order to establish a just and democratic world order based on collective principles in solving international problems and on the rule of international law, primarily the UN Charter provisions as well as equal ...
READ MORE
Mosul, Iraq and Obama’s Legacy of War
Barack Obama is the first two-term American president to have presided over war every day of his tenure in office. He bequeaths to a Trump administration ongoing operations in Afghanistan, continuing drone strikes in northwest Pakistan, the consequences of the 2011 destruction of Libya, the instigation of civil war in Syria, US sponsorship of the brutal Saudi interventions in Yemen, and the civil conflicts in Ukraine, the Caucuses and across Africa. Obama’s blood-soaked legacy, however, is most graphic in Iraq. There is a bitter irony in this, given the fact that he was elected in 2008 largely on the basis of ...
READ MORE
A Short History of An Interwar Yugoslavia (1918‒1941)
Yugoslavia (the “land of South Slavs”) was a Balkan multi-ethnic state which emerged from the ruins of the Austrian-Hungarian Monarchy (est. 1867) and was officially announced to exist on December 1st, 1918 under the original name of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.[i] The name was changed in June 1929 to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. The country existed under such name till April 1941 when it was destroyed, occupied, and divided by the Axis Powers and their Balkan satellites. Legally, the state emerged from the 1917 Corfu Pact signed by the Government of Serbia on one hand and the ...
READ MORE
Bill Clinton and Kosovo Albanian War Criminals
President Bill Clinton’s favorite freedom fighter just got indicted for mass murder, torture, kidnapping, and other crimes against humanity. In 1999, the Clinton administration launched a 78-day bombing campaign that killed up to 1500 civilians in Serbia and Kosovo in what the American media proudly portrayed as a crusade against ethnic bias. That war, like most of the pretenses of U.S. foreign policy, was always a sham.Kosovo President Hashim Thaci was charged with ten counts of war crimes and crimes against humanity by an international tribunal in The Hague in the Netherlands. It charged Thaci and nine other men with ...
READ MORE
Why America Needs War
GR Editor’s Note: This incisive article was written on April 30, 2003, by historian and political scientist Jacques Pauwels. A timely question: Why Does Hillary Want War… ? And why do people support her?  *     *     * Wars are a terrible waste of lives and resources, and for that reason most people are in principle opposed to wars. The American President, on the other hand, seems to love war. Why? Many commentators have sought the answer in psychological factors. Some opined that George W. Bush considered it his duty to finish the job started, but for some obscure reason ...
READ MORE
The Irish Republican Brotherhood
One of the most controversial, influential, and well-known revolutionary organizations in the world was the Irish Republican Army (the IRA) considered to be both patriotic and terrorists.The FeniansIt is of extreme debate the question of its real origin but it is mostly accepted the standpoint that the origins of the IRA are in the Irish Republican Brotherhood (the IRB) or popularly known as the Fenians as it grew out of the Fenian movement.[1] The name is coming from the Irish armed forces in legendary times. The Fenian movement was founded as both the Fenian Brotherhood in the USA by John ...
READ MORE
It is Time to Call Radio “Liberty” What It is: Radio Gestapo America
Radio “Liberty” has always been a propaganda ministry. Formerly its propaganda was directed against the Soviet Union. Today it is directed against distinguished Americans who are known and respected for their allegiance to the truth.Radio Liberty’s latest target is an American scholar who is far more widely respected than Radio Liberty. Like everything else in Washington, the two-bit propaganda ministry is carried away by hubris and a mistaken opinion of its own importance.A Radio Liberty non-entity named Carl Schreck, of whom no one has ever heard has declared America’s most distinguished Russian scholar, Stephen Cohen, to be “a Putin apologist.”Stephen ...
READ MORE
Israel is a War Criminal
Libya: From Africa’s Richest State under Gaddafi, to Failed State after NATO Intervention
CIA: The Corrupt and Ignorant Agency
How Belgium is being Forced to Confront the Bloody Legacy of King Leopold II
An Isolated Tyrannical Regime – Not Pyongyang, It’s Washington
A Brief History of Palestine and Israel
Bosnian Muslims Suppressed Their Dirty Nazi Legacy
Hillary Clinton and the Brutal Murder of Gaddafi
Weapons of Mass Destruction
Stalingrad: The Ideological Basis for Croatia’s Role
Is it an Empire? See the Facts
What’s in a Name? Everything and Nothing
The Dark Side of the Empire
Russia’s Geopolitical Interests in the Balkans
Mosul, Iraq and Obama’s Legacy of War
A Short History of An Interwar Yugoslavia (1918‒1941)
Bill Clinton and Kosovo Albanian War Criminals
Why America Needs War
The Irish Republican Brotherhood
It is Time to Call Radio “Liberty” What It is: Radio Gestapo America
FOLLOW US ON OUR SOCIAL PLATFORMS
Share

About White Nettle

SHORT LEGAL DISCLAIMER: The website’s owner & editor-in-chief has no official position on any issue published on this website. The views of the authors presented on this website do not necessarily coincide with the opinion of the owner & editor-in-chief of the website. The contents of all material (articles, books, photos, videos…) are of sole responsibility of the authors. The owner & editor-in-chief of this website is not morally, scientifically, or legally responsible for any inaccurate or incorrect statement in the contents of all material found on this website. The owner & editor-in-chief of this website is not responsible for the content of external internet sites. No advertising, government, or corporate funding for the functioning of this website. The owner & editor-in-chief and authors are not morally, scientifically, or legally responsible for any inaccurate or incorrect statement in the text and material found on the website www.global-politics.eu