Selective Amnesia: Croatia’s Holocaust Deniers

Hits: 447

The mugshots show Ivo Goldstein, a Jewish librarian and book dealer, looking bright-eyed and calm — even after nine days of confinement in a Croatian police cell. One of the prints bears the number 28888 and a date: April 21, 1941.

Seventy-six years after they were taken by a police photographer, the photos hang as a triptych on the bedroom wall of Goldstein’s son, Daniel, in a drab apartment block in Zagreb’s Zaprudje neighborhood.

Daniel, 85, is a historian and human rights activist. He was nine when his childhood was shattered by his father’s arrest in the newly created Independent State of Croatia, NDH, during World War II.

A grave-stone full of fascist (Ustashi) symbols in a cemetery of the Croatian town of Samobor

This puppet state of Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy was set up after the invasion of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia by Axis powers in the spring of 1941. It was led by ultranationalist dictator Ante Pavelic, whose fascist Ustasa movement had sought a Croatian state by any means.

Modelled largely on the German SS, Ustasa units wasted no time in implementing Nazi-style racial laws, rounding up and killing Jews, Serbs and Roma along with anti-fascists.

The Ustasa built concentration camps across the NDH, which spanned most of modern-day Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina along with parts of Serbia and Slovenia.

Ivo Goldstein was one of the first Jews to be arrested, in the industrial city of Karlovac.

He ended up at the Jadovno camp in the foothills of the Velebit mountain range near the Adriatic. Records show he was killed there, four months after his arrest, at the age of 41.

After the war, Daniel changed his surname to Ivin (son of Ivo) in memory of his father. He says he would have been killed too if he had not joined — at the age of 10 — the anti-fascist Partisan movement led by Croatian-born communist Josip Broz Tito, who would rule Yugoslavia for 35 years after the war.

“Shortly after I joined the Partisans, my close relatives were killed in the NDH camps, including my grandparents who had been looking after me until then,” he said. “My uncle, who was killed in Auschwitz, didn’t manage to save himself either.”

Given his life story, it is no surprise that Ivin is angry about a growing number of voices in Croatia seeking to whitewash Ustasa crimes during World War II.

Those crimes include the murder of tens of thousands of Serbs, Jews and Roma at the notorious Jasenovac concentration camp, often referred to as the Auschwitz of the Balkans.

In a political climate that has lurched to the right since Croatia became the EU’s newest member in 2013, Ustasa apologists openly express their views on social media, in lecture halls and on prime-time television.

Bookstores stock monographs disputing overwhelming evidence that Jasenovac was an Ustasa extermination camp. Prominent politicians have cast doubt on the genocidal nature of Pavelic’s regime.

Critics say such revisionism is tantamount to Holocaust denial.

“Denying that Jasenovac was a death camp makes me feel so bitter,” Ivin said. “I consider revisionists who claim that kind of thing to be criminals because they are killing victims for the second time with their lies. I don’t know how the government can allow it.”

Rights activists say successive governments led by the conservative Croatian Democratic Union party, HDZ, have turned a blind eye to neo-fascist nostalgia, allowing hate speech to thrive.

Jasenovac death camp in which around 500.000 Serbs were brutally executed by Croat Ustashi 

Meanwhile, they accuse state institutions of failing to enforce legislation prohibiting public denial, belittlement or condoning of genocide crimes that was introduced in the run-up to Croatia’s EU accession in 2013.

Efraim Zuroff, who has spent more than 40 years hunting Nazis for the Simon Wiesenthal Center, describes Croatia as a country that has gone from being one of the cradles of the Holocaust to a “cradle of Holocaust distortion”.

He groups Croatia alongside some Eastern European states that he says have selective amnesia about the wartime records of collaborators, quislings and local anti-Semites, including Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Ukraine, Hungary and to some extent Poland (see box).

“What is specific to these countries is that they would like to turn former fighters for independence and against communism into national heroes,” Zuroff said in a phone interview from his office at the anti-fascist organisation in Jerusalem.

“In some cases, these are persons responsible for killing Jewish citizens during the Holocaust, which should suffice to disqualify them.”

Counting the dead

Nobody knows how many Serbs were killed by Ustasa units during four years of slaughter that historians say surprised even Pavelic’s Nazi backers in Germany. The US Holocaust Memorial Museum puts the number between 320,000 and 340,000, an estimate that includes Partisan and Serb royalist fighters. In the 1980s, demographer Vladimir Zerjavic estimated that 197,000 of the dead were civilians.

The extermination of Jews is well documented. Some 30,500 of 39,000 Jews living in NDH territory were murdered by the Ustasa or sent to Nazi death camps elsewhere in Europe.

Many survivors moved to Israel after the war. Croatia’s Jewish community now numbers a little over 500, according to the latest census in 2011.

At Jasenovac in central Croatia, the Ustasa did their killing with knives and hammers in a complex of sub-camps near today’s Bosnian border.

Painstaking and scientifically verified research by the Jasenovac Memorial Site has established the identities of 83,145 victims, though a final death count has yet to be established.

The research shows 47,627 Serbs, 16,173 Roma and 13,116 Jews perished at Jasenovac during the war, along with several thousand dissident Croats and people of other nationalities. Of those, 20,101 were children.

For the past two years, representatives of Serbian and Jewish communities along with anti-fascist organisations have boycotted state commemoration services for Jasenovac victims in protest at what they see as government leniency towards Ustasa sympathisers.

They were particularly incensed by the installation, last November, of a plaque near Jasenovac by veterans of Croatia’s 1991-1995 conflict that was emblazoned with the words “Za dom spremni” [“For homeland ready”], the Ustasa equivalent of the Nazi salute “Sieg Heil”.

President Kolinda Grabar Kitarovic has downplayed the use of the slogan, calling it an “old Croatian salute” — a description challenged by mainstream historians who say it was an Ustasa invention.

After months of criticism for allowing the plaque to stay in Jasenovac, the government moved it to the nearby town of Novska in September.

Many saw the response as too little, too late.

“When fascist events start happening in a society, this brings about a sense of uneasiness among Jews,” said Sanja Zoricic Tabakovic, a judge and representative of the Jewish community in Zagreb.

“But when institutions don’t react, this causes fear because you don’t know where that really can lead us.

The latest annual report by Croatia’s independent ombudsman, published in May, cites a rise in hate speech and Holocaust distortion.

“There are more and more media propagating and spreading prejudices and stereotypes, publishing texts that incite hatred against minorities, rehabilitating the Ustasa regime and diminishing or denying crimes committed in World War II,” the report says.

Among the more vocal of the revisionists is the Society for Research of the Threefold Jasenovac Camp, a non-governmental organisation whose members include journalists, teachers, university professors and Catholic priests.

The society champions a theory that Jasenovac was merely a labour camp under Ustasa rule and that it only became a death camp when it was taken over by Tito’s Partisans after the war.

The theory flies in the face of countless official documents, testimonies and studies by Holocaust experts and world-renowned historians.

Natasa Matausic, a historian and president of the board of directors of the Jasenovac Memorial Site, said there was no evidence that Yugoslav communists ran a concentration camp at Jasenovac after the war.

“They [members of the society] are using documents from the state archives, the same ones we have used for years, and interpret them any way that suits them,” she said. “For example, the fact that a person died in Jasenovac camp in 1943 and was declared dead in 1946, they use as evidence that the person was killed in 1946.”

Igor Vukic, the society’s secretary, defended the theory.

“We say this is what we’ve found, and we haven’t really concealed anything that doesn’t support our claims,” he said.

A public statement by Dr. Franjo Tuđman who was a President of Croatia in the 1990s

Dealing with the past

Last December, the government said it would create a special council of experts tasked with making recommendations “aimed at dealing with the past” — a response to the controversy surrounding the veterans’ plaque at Jasenovac.

Vukic said the Society for Research of the Threefold Jasenovac Camp asked the government to be part of the council, mandated to consider such matters as how history should be taught in schools and anniversaries commemorated.

According to Vukic, the proposal had the support of Bozo Petrov, then parliamentary speaker and president of a junior party in the coalition government of the day.

Vukic said “friends from the country, Europe and the world” had sent messages backing the society’s participation to Petrov, whose Bridge of the Independent Lists, MOST, billed itself as a non-ideological party in Croatia’s polarised politics.

In mid-February, a fortnight before the council was officially set up, Petrov wrote to Prime Minister Andrej Plenkovic forwarding the messages of support.

“I am using this opportunity to deliver to you proposals that representatives of the Society for Research of the Threefold Jasenovac Camp should be included in the work of the council,” he wrote in a letter seen by the Balkan Investigative Reporting Network, BIRN.

BIRN did not see the forwarded proposals or have information on whom they were from.

Petrov declined an interview request, but MOST spokeswoman Ruzica Popovic said the fact that he forwarded the messages did not mean he endorsed them.

“They [the office of the speaker of parliament] forward all received proposals,” she said.

In the end, the government turned down the society’s request to be part of the council.

Matausic from the Jasenovac Memorial Site believes the Society for Research of the Threefold Jasenovac Camp should be banned.“What they really do is a denial of genocide and the Holocaust that took place in the NDH,” she said.

Asked if the society engaged in such denial, Vukic said: “When it’s about genocide, it is often linked to Serbs. If it’s about that, we do deny it. ”

He continued: “Of course we don’t deny the Holocaust… When it comes to Jewish people, nobody who is serious, nobody who is smart can deny or fail to be compassionate with that.”

But examination of the Facebook profile of the society’s president, a Catholic priest named Stjepan Razum who works at the Croatian state archives, revealed several videos of prominent Holocaust deniers accompanied by his approving comments.

On May 17, Razum shared a video of Richard Williamson, a British Catholic bishop convicted of Holocaust denial by a German court in 2013, in which Williamson says: “I believe that the historical evidence is hugely against six million Jews having been deliberately gassed in gas chambers as a deliberate policy of Adolf Hitler.”

Above the video, Razum commented: “Courageous man! Congratulations!”

Razum declined a telephone interview request but agreed to answer questions by email.

Asked about Williamson’s views, Razum wrote: “I thank God that I am living in the Republic of Croatia, which is a free and democratic state and the benefits of this are that we are free to think, free to speak, free to use FB [Facebook], free to comment, free to research, free to be involved in scientific work, free to travel, free to wonder, free to congratulate…”

Prominent revisionists

Dr. Franjo Tuđman’s dream of a Greater Croatia in the 1990s

Rights activists say distortion of World War II crimes is nothing new in Croatia. It was especially prevalent during the Balkans conflict of the early 1990s when anti-Serb sentiment was high and Croatia was forging its identity as an independent nation.

Franjo Tudjman, Croatia’s first democratically elected president, wrote in a 1989 book titled Wastelands – Historical Truth that the estimate of six million Jews killed in the Holocaust was based on “overly emotional and biased testimonies and on one-sided data in post-war calculations of war crimes and in settling scores with the defeated perpetrators of war crimes”.

Tudjman, who founded the HDZ, wrote elsewhere: “A Jew is still a Jew, even in Jasenovac camp. In the camp they retained their bad characteristics that were more visible there. Selfishness,  slyness, unreliability, stinginess, perfidy and confidentiality are their main characteristics.”

Political scientists say Tudjman was the first politician to try to find equivalence between fascist crimes and those committed by communists, including the killing of Ustasa and NDH prisoners and civilians by Yugoslav Partisan forces right after the war.

These efforts were partly a reaction to decades of Yugoslav historiography in which the number of Jasenovac victims was put at around 700,000, they say.

While Croatian nationalists sought to downplay the numbers in the late 1980s and 1990s, Serbian nationalists blew them out of proportion in a bid to label Croats as genocidal. Vuk Draskovic, leader of the Serbian Renewal Movement party, wrote in 1985 that a million-and-a-half Serbs were killed in the NDH.

In recent years, prominent Croatian revisionists have included HDZ lawmaker Vice Vukojevic, who sat on a now-defunct commission that put the Jasenovac death toll at 2,238, and Zlatko Hasanbegovic, a culture minister who described the end of the NDH in 1945 as “our biggest national tragedy and defeat”.

President Grabar Kitarovic has formally condemned the Ustasa as a criminal regime and expressed her “deepest regrets to all the victims of the Holocaust in Croatia” during a trip to Israel.

But she has also come under fire for being photographed with a flag bearing an Ustasa symbol and for listing her favourite musician as Thompson, an incendiary soldier-turned-singer whose lyrics contain the “Za dom spremni” slogan.

Meanwhile, Stjepan Mesic, who served as Croatia’s second president and was known for his liberal views, this year resigned as honorary head of the Alliance of Anti-Fascist Fighters and Anti-Fascists after videos from 1992 emerged of him questioning if Jasenovac was a death camp.

“People were killed, but [only] before coming to Jasenovac,” he says in one video. “When someone came to Jasenovac, he was already practically saved, as a worker.”

No prosecutions

Lawyers say the question of whether public statements like these could be considered illegal boils down to interpretation of the criminal code.

Unlike in other EU countries such as Germany or Austria, the law makes no specific reference to the Holocaust or World War II-era crimes.

Article 325 of the code says people who “publicly condone, deny or significantly diminish criminal acts of genocide, crimes of aggression, crimes against humanity or war crimes” can get up to three years in prison if their actions incite violence or hatred.

Police have never filed a criminal complaint related to this part of the code, the interior ministry said.

“In Croatia, it has to be done in a way that incites violence or hatred towards a social group damaged by the crime,” said Vesna Alaburic, a Zagreb-based lawyer. “It’s a very subjective relation to a felony that is very difficult to prove.”

In Germany, the justice ministry said 93 people were convicted of denying, condoning or relativising Nazi genocide crimes in 2015, the latest year statistics were available. Six of them got jail terms.

In Austria last year, state attorneys received 75 complaints of denying, relativising, condoning or exculpating Nazi genocide or crimes against humanity, according to Austria’s justice ministry. Four people went to prison for such crimes in 2016.

BIRN asked Croatia’s 22 local state attorney’s offices if they had ever received criminal complaints of genocide or Holocaust distortion or denial from individuals or groups.

Of the 20 that answered, only three said they had.

In 2013, three rights organisations filed a joint criminal complaint to prosecutors in the central city of Kutina accusing Josip Miljak, former president of the far-right Croatian Pure Party of Rights, of breaking the law by downplaying the slaughter at Jasenovac.

According to the complaint by the Center for Peace Studies, Documenta and the Civic Committee for Human Rights, Miljak disparaged research by the Jasenovac memorial centre that puts the death toll at the camp firmly at 83,000.

The complaint said he also wrote in an email to the former head of the memorial centre, Natasa Jovicic, that “your lies and hatred of everything that is Croatian will contribute to your end”, which she and rights activists interpreted as a threat.

The local attorney’s office decided not to prosecute the criminal complaint on the grounds that there was no element of public incitement to Miljak’s alleged diminishment of war crimes, according to a decision document seen by BIRN.

The local attorney’s office did prosecute a misdemeanour case related to Miljak’s alleged threat. In 2015, local judge Robert Strniscak acquitted Miljak. During the trial, Strniscak made headlines himself by questioning whether 83,000 people really died at Jasenovac.

Meanwhile, in 2016, the Anti-Fascist League of Croatia filed a criminal complaint to the state attorney’s office in Zagreb, accusing documentary maker Jakov Sedlar of “public incitement to violence and hatred”.

The League claimed that Sedlar used his film Jasenovac – The Truth, which disputes the official death toll of the memorial site, to target Croatia’s national minorities, especially Serbs.

“[Sedlar] concealed the scientifically established facts of the genocidal character of the NDH,” the complaint says.

Sedlar rejects the charge. In May, he received an award from the city of Zagreb for his work.

“Some inquiries are still necessary to gather all the necessary relevant information and notices to make the decision [on whether to proceed with a prosecution],” the state attorney’s office wrote in an email.

Croatian neo-Ustashi in 2017

‘Poisonous cocktail’

The third criminal complaint was filed in mid-October by three human rights organisations with prosecutors in the north-western city of Pula against a blogger described as a peddler of dangerous hate speech.“There is a concrete person behind all this, with a real name and surname,” said Drazen Hoffmann, a researcher for rights group GONG and one of the authors of the complaint. “His online work is dedicated to anti-Semitism, affirmation of Nazi ideas and negation of the Holocaust.”

As of publication, it was unclear if prosecutors would take the case to court.

Surrounded by books and old newspapers on the top floor of a 19th-Centurybuilding overlooking Zagreb’s main square, Hoffmann helps run an online platform for people to report, among other things, Holocaust denial and fascist graffiti.

The 31-year-old political scientist said hate speech started picking up towards the end of 2013 when radical elements of the HDZ sensed political capital to be gained by fanning anti-Serb sentiment following fury over the installation of Cyrillic signs in the eastern city of Vukovar, which had been devastated by Serbforces in 1991.

“That was a poisonous cocktail, whose echoes and outbursts we can still see and hear in public,” he said. “Historical revisionism is here with a mission to blacken any legacy of anti-fascism — and also to completely identify it with ‘Serbishness’, and that with crimes and aggression from the ‘90s war.”

The HDZ did not respond to emailed questions and a telephone call.

Croatia’s EU accession in 2013 was also a milestone, Hoffmann said, noting that no systems were put in place to monitor the protection of human rights after accession.

“It is quite true that after a country enters this community, after the conditioning is over, some standards do drop,” he said.

Asked about human rights monitoring in Croatia, European Commission spokesman Christian Wigandsaid the European Union was working with member states and social media companies to tackle illegal hate speech.

“Hate speech and radical propaganda have no place in our societies — online or offline,” he said.

Efraim Zuroff from the Simon Wiesenthal Center said the onus was on the government to set the tone from the top.

“They finally have to admit the historical truth and tell people: ‘These are the facts, you have to live with them, understand what happened and do whatever is possible to never repeat it again,’” he said.


Originally published on 2017-11-24

Source: Balkan Insight

About the author: Tamara Opacic is an executive editor at Novosti weekly in Zagreb. This article was produced as part of the Balkan Fellowship for Journalistic Excellence, supported by the ERSTE Foundation and Open Society Foundations, in cooperation with the Balkan Investigative Reporting Network.

Origins of images: Facebook, Twitter, Wikimedia, Wikipedia, Flickr, Google, Imageinjection & Pinterest.

Read our Disclaimer/Legal Statement!

Donate to Support Us

We would like to ask you to consider a small donation to help our team keep working. We accept no advertising and rely only on you, our readers, to keep us digging the truth on history, global politics and international relations.

Explanation of the photo with the nives of the present-day EuroCroatia. Legend: An inscription on the blade is “God and Croats”. Abbreviation ZDS iz “Za dom spremni” (Ready for Homeland) – the WWII Nazifascist Ustashi motto. The coat of arms is from the WWII Independent State of Croatia. The person is the mid-19th century “Father of Croats” – Dr. Ante Starčević, a racist ideologist of ethnically cleansed Croatia.</p

READ MORE!
War and Empire: The American Way of Life
A few months ago I received a message from a professor at the Khomeini Institute for Education and  Research in Tehran, Iran, informing me that my 2010 book “War and Empire: The American Way of Life” (London, Pluto Press) had been translated into Farsi. He requested that I write an Introduction for Iranian readers. What follows is that Introduction. Two years ago the Xinhua Peoples’ Press in Beijing, China also published a translation in Mandarin. In the aftermath of Saddam Hussein’s 1991 attempt to annex Kuwait, the U.S. deliberately destroyed much of Iraq’s water and sewer infrastructure. The Pentagon even admitted ...
READ MORE
Saudi Arab Islamist beheading Serbs in Bosnia in 1992
The conflict that raged throughout the former Yugoslavia was met by a wall of silence when it came to important issues. These important issues apply to America and the United Kingdom supporting Islamists in a brutal civil war in Bosnia and then installing a new nation by ignoring international law in Kosovo. Also, is it credible to believe that the vast majority of major news agencies and national governments did not know about thousands of Islamists in Europe who were sent to slit the throats and behead Orthodox Christians? After all, if the reality of what really happened in Bosnia and ...
READ MORE
Blatant Violation, by U.S. & its Allies against the U.N. Charter
America’s and its allies’ violation of the U.N. Charter, in regards to their recent actions to force a regime-change upon the sovereign nation of Venezuela, are baldly, and with unambiguous clarity, in violation of one of the seven founding “Principles” that are stated in the U.N. Charter.These violations are so severe as to demonstrate that the U.S. Government is an international rogue-regime — a blatant and unapologetic and repeated violator of the U.N. Charter, and of other major sources of international law.The U.N. Charter contains 19 “Chapters” or main divisions, and 111 “Articles” which include each subdivision within each “Chapter.” ...
READ MORE
Victims of the (Western) Christian Faith
Listed are only events that solely occurred on command or participation of church authorities or were committed in the name of Christianity. (List incomplete)Ancient PagansAs soon as Christianity became legal in the Roman Empire by imperial edict (315), more and more pagan temples were destroyed by Christian mob. Pagan priests were killed.Between 315 and 6th century thousands of pagan believers were slain.Examples of destroyed Temples: the Sanctuary of Aesculap in Aegaea, the Temple of Aphrodite in Golgatha, Aphaka in Lebanon, the Heliopolis.Christian priests such as Mark of Arethusa or Cyrill of Heliopolis were famous as "temple destroyer." [DA468]Pagan services became ...
READ MORE
Ukraine: US-installed Fascist Tyranny in Europe’s Heartland
Ukraine matters. It’s territory is Europe’s largest after Russia’s. It borders seven countries in Europe’s heartland – Belarus, Hungary, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Russia. It shares a strategically important 1,500-long land and sea border with the Russian Federation. The country is resource rich. Zbigniew Brzezinski once said: “without Ukraine, Russia ceases to be an empire, but with Ukraine suborned and then subordinated, Russia automatically becomes an empire.” Separately, he said if Russia reunites with Ukraine, it’ll be a Eurasian powerhouse. If Ukraine allies with Western Europe, Moscow will be significantly weakened geopolitically. The Obama regime’s February 2014 coup d’etat replaced democratic governance in Kiev ...
READ MORE
The World According to ISIS
This article is excerpted from Fawaz A. Gerges’s forthcoming book, ISIS: A History.Although the spectacular surge of ISIS must be contextualized within the social and political circumstances that exist in Iraq and Syria and beyond, the group’s worldview and ideology should be taken equally seriously. Ideology is, after all, the superglue that binds Salafi-jihadists known as revolutionary religious activists or global jihadists of the ISIS variety to each other. The Salafi-jihadist movement emerged from an alliance between ultraconservative Saudi Salafism (or Wahhabism) and revolutionary Egyptian Islamism which was inspired by the Egyptian master theorist, Sayyid Qutb. The Afghan war against ...
READ MORE
Turkey: A Criminal State, a NATO State
It is now openly discussed even in mainstream media the fact that Turkey has been intimately involved in fomenting and supporting the war on Syria, with its ultimate goal of the overthrow of the Syrian government and its replacement by a compliant proxy aligned with Turkish President Erdogan and the Muslim Brotherhood. That this is no longer a ‘conspiracy theory’ but a conspiracy fact not only vindicates my analysis over the last four years, but it also brings to the fore the nefarious role of a NATO member in stoking a brutal and bloody war for its own ends. Beyond just ...
READ MORE
The Problem is America: The Malignant Cultural Hegemony
What is wrong with the American people? After several years of horrific policy toward the waking world, democracy’s standard bearers seem to be drowning in a lake of selfishness. Distracted, apathetic, or simply dumbed and numbed by unrelenting propaganda, the most admired society on Earth has turned to a wriggling mush of diverging ideals. I fear that American have become what we ultimately deplored, just another despicable cultural hegemony. Here’s a short brief on the matter. A recent article by James Carden at The Nation prompted me to discuss this unsavory truth today. The title of the piece, “Trump’s Syria Policy: ...
READ MORE
Top 10 Reasons not to Love NATO
The New York Times loves NATO, but should you?Judging by comments in social media and the real world, millions of people in the United States have gone from having little or no opinion on NATO, or from opposing NATO as the world’s biggest military force responsible for disastrous wars in places like Afghanistan (for Democrats) or Libya (for Republicans), to believing NATO to be a tremendous force for good in the world.I believe this notion to be propped up by a series of misconceptions that stand in dire need of correction.1. NATO is not a war-legalizing body, quite the opposite. NATO, like the United ...
READ MORE
Israelis – Not Muslims – Cheered in Jersey City on 9/11
The corporate media don’t like Donald Trump. They used to like him a lot; in fact, Big Business Media are responsible for making this minor multi-millionaire into a household name. But Trump is on their hit list, nowadays, because the Republican presidential candidate insists on telling his own lies, rather than sticking to the list of official lies parroted by corporate media every minute of every day. Donald Trump told a really “HUGE” – as he would put it – lie when he claimed to have watched thousands of Muslims cheering in Jersey City, New Jersey, as the World Trade Center ...
READ MORE
The USA – The Real Reason Why They Are Never Winning Their Wars
This essay is inspired by Professor James Petras’s article, describing that the US never wins wars despite trillions of investments in her war budget and obvious military superiority. Professor Petras is of course right, the United States is currently engaged in seven bloody wars around the globe (Afghanistan, Iraq, Pakistan, Syria, Yemen, Somalia, Libya) and has not been winning one, including WWII. The question is: Why is that? To these wars, you may want to add the totally destructive and human rights adverse war that literally slaughters unarmed civilians, including thousands of children, in an open-air prison, Gaza, the US proxy war ...
READ MORE
The Violent American Century: War and Terror Since World War II
World War II marked the apogee of industrialized “total war.” Great powers savaged one another. Hostilities engulfed the globe. Mobilization extended to virtually every sector of every nation. Air war, including the terror bombing of civilians, emerged as a central strategy of the victorious Anglo-American powers. The devastation was catastrophic almost everywhere, with the notable exception of the United States, which exited the strife unscathed and unmatched in power and influence. The death toll of fighting forces plus civilians worldwide was staggering. The Violent American Century addresses the U.S.-led transformations in war conduct and strategizing that followed 1945—beginning with brutal localized ...
READ MORE
The Brutal Destruction of Yugoslavia (1991‒1995)
The brutal destruction of ex-Yugoslav Federal state-system was in a form of the civil wars or, in another word, a chain of violent conflicts from 1991 to 1995. From the spring of 1992, the SFRY already did not exist as a state and, therefore, the conflicts were turned into the Wars of the Yugoslav Succession.The Yugoslav civil wars can be comprised of the three closely related armed conflicts:1) War in Slovenia in 1991.2) War in Croatia from 1991 to 1995.3) War in Bosnia-Herzegovina from 1992 to 1995.[i]In the year of 1990, the real potential for the armed conflict became quite ...
READ MORE
NATO – 70th Anniversary of the Most Murderous – and Legal – Organization on our Planet
On 4th of April 2019 NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) “celebrated” the 70th Anniversary of its murderous existence. This horror organization was born sort of as a “Rosemary’s Baby”, signed into life in Washington DC, as the North Atlantic Treaty. Its creation was absolutely unethical but also absolutely “legal” – meaning what we, the west, have made the law, a man-made law for war, was applied by the Washington-Pentagon driven NATO. Estimates have it, that NATO and its ‘allies’, cronies, proxies and mercenaries killed more than 20 million people since NATO’s existence, basically since the end of WWII. Compare this with ...
READ MORE
The History of Yugoslavia: Srebrenica and the Ratko Mladić Verdict
While Zimbabwe was changing under various inexorable forces of power, the more sterile surrounds of The Hague and the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia offered the scene for a conviction.The “Serb Warlord” or the “Butcher of Bosnia”, as he has been termed in various circles, had finally received a verdict few were doubting. One of the doubters was, naturally, the man himself, Ratko Mladić, who accused the judicial officers of incurable mendacity.Of the 11 charges levelled at Ratko Mladić, he was acquitted of one – genocide in Bosnian municipalities outside Srebrenica. Others covered genocide, war crimes and crimes ...
READ MORE
When Canada Invaded Russia
The corporate media presents Russia as militaristic but ignores Canada’s invasion of that country.100 years ago today a popular revolt ousted the Russian monarchy. Enraged at Nicholas II’s brutality and the horror of World War I, protests and strikes swept the capital of Petrograd (Saint Petersburg). Within a week the czar abdicated. Later in the year the Bolsheviks rose to power in large part by committing to withdraw from the war.The English, French and US responded to the Bolshevik’s rise by supporting the Russian monarchists (the whites) in their fight to maintain power. Six thousand Canadian troops also invaded. According ...
READ MORE
International Systems of States and Global Security Models
IntroductionThe fundamental aim of the text below is to deal with the concept and models of global security as one of the crucial topics of global political studies. We have to keep in mind that a term and notion of security usually imply a kind of sense of protection and safety from different possible harms coming from „outside“. Therefore, it can be generally acceptable and understandable that the states want to protect their own territories by expanding great resources in making their territorial safe. Security topics are of very different kind, ranging from the causes of conflict between states to ...
READ MORE
Ukraine: Zbig’s Grand Chessboard – How the West was Checkmated
A quick review of Ukraine,  Zbig’s Grand Chessboard – How the West Was Checkmated is simple – this amazing work should be in everyone’s reading library.  Anyone who cares to understand the situation of what has happened, and is happening in Ukraine needs to read this book.  It covers the history of the dissolution of the USSR, the resulting creation of Ukraine, and the history of the U.S.’ attempts through various government and non-government organizations (e.g. Soros) towards the first failed colour revolution (Orange, 2004), then on towards the second attempt resulting in the successful installation of the noenazi puppet ...
READ MORE
A Look at “Kill Anything that Moves: The Real American War in Vietnam”
In Kill Anything that Moves: The Real American War in Vietnam (Metropolitan Books. New York. 2013), Turse writes that the US military’s official position, and the popular understanding in the US, is that leadership “has never condoned wanton killing or disregard for human life.” (2) On the rare occasions when atrocities are brought to light, they are blamed on low-level individuals and are said to be aberrations having nothing to do with official policy. The My Lai massacre, for example, was blamed on Lieutenant William Calley, who is said to have gone “crazy” (4,5) – although he and his unit ...
READ MORE
American Rape of Vietnamese Women was Considered “Standard Operating Procedure”
Comparing testimony from Vietnamese women and American soldiers, Gina Marie Weaver, in her book Ideologies of Forgetting: Rape in The Vietnam War, finds that rape of Vietnamese women by American troops during the US invasion of Vietnam was a “widespread”, “everyday occurrence” that was essentially “condoned”, even encouraged, by the military, and had its foundation in military training and US culture.  She explores why US rape in Vietnam was so common, and why this aspect of US behavior has been virtually “erased” from “narratives of the war”.  She stresses the issue is also important as rape in the US military continues ...
READ MORE
War and Empire: The American Way of Life
Bosnia and Kosovo: Radical Islam, Organ Trafficking and Western Mainstream Media Bias
Blatant Violation, by U.S. & its Allies against the U.N. Charter
Victims of the (Western) Christian Faith
Ukraine: US-installed Fascist Tyranny in Europe’s Heartland
The World According to ISIS
Turkey: A Criminal State, a NATO State
The Problem is America: The Malignant Cultural Hegemony
Top 10 Reasons not to Love NATO
Israelis – Not Muslims – Cheered in Jersey City on 9/11
The USA – The Real Reason Why They Are Never Winning Their Wars
The Violent American Century: War and Terror Since World War II
The Brutal Destruction of Yugoslavia (1991‒1995)
NATO – 70th Anniversary of the Most Murderous – and Legal – Organization on our Planet
The History of Yugoslavia: Srebrenica and the Ratko Mladić Verdict
When Canada Invaded Russia
International Systems of States and Global Security Models
Ukraine: Zbig’s Grand Chessboard – How the West was Checkmated
A Look at “Kill Anything that Moves: The Real American War in Vietnam”
American Rape of Vietnamese Women was Considered “Standard Operating Procedure”
Policraticus

Written by Policraticus

SHORT LEGAL DISCLAIMER: The website’s owner & editor-in-chief has no official position on any issue published at this website. The views of the authors presented at this website do not necessarily coincide with the opinion of the owner & editor-in-chief of the website. The contents of all material (articles, books, photos, videos…) are of sole responsibility of the authors. The owner & editor-in-chief of this website is not morally, scientifically or legally responsible for any inaccurate or incorrect statement in the contents of all material found on this website. The owner & editor-in-chief of this website is not responsible for the content of external internet sites. No advertising, government or corporate funding for the functioning of this website. The owner & editor-in-chief and authors are not morally, scientifically or legally responsible for any inaccurate or incorrect statement in the text and material found on the website www.global-politics.eu

Website: http://www.global-politics.eu