The Croatian National Revival Movement (1830–1847) and the Serbs (IV)

Hits: 126

Part I

Part II 

Part III

The Croatian (Illyrian) Revival Movement until a victory of the national (South Slavic) language (1847)

The Austrian Emperor, Ferdinand V (1835–1848), on January 11th, 1843 issued the order of prohibition of the use of the Illyrian name and the Illyrian coat of arms. The prohibition was officially justified with the explanation that such a measure was necessary for the purpose to restrain further political struggle and attacks from the Illyrian Party against the mađaroni and the ethnic Hungarians in Croatia-Slavonia. At the same time, the Ottoman authorities required from the Habsburg Emperor to forbid the public use of the Illyrian name and to dissolute the Illyrian Party with an explanation that the Croat ilirci were preparing a Christian uprising in the Ottoman province of Bosnia-Herzegovina (the Pashalik of Bosnia) against the Ottoman central Government for the purpose to separate this province from the Ottoman Empire and to include it into the united (Greater) Croatia within the Austrian Empire.

In the new political conditions, the leaders of the Illyrian Party in order to continue their legal and public political struggle against the mađaroni decided to change the party-name into the People’s Party. However, after 1843, the Illyrian name was gradually more and more replaced by the Croat national name. Before that time, a Croat ethnic name was used only in a part of the present-day (Greater) Croatia where the kajkavian dialect was spoken. However, after 1843 the Croat ethnic name was more and more spreading itself in Slavonia, Dalmatia and parts of Bosnia-Herzegovina where the čakavian and the štokavian dialects were spoken by the South Slavic Roman Catholics who used the Latin alphabet. In the course of time, their national name became the Croat one.[1] Further, the leadership of the Illyrian Party decided to change the name of its own newspaper into the Narodne novine (the People’s Newspaper), which are still printed today under the same name as an official herald of the Republic of Croatia.[2] However, this newspaper became once again renamed on March 20th, 1844 into the Novine horvatsko-slavonsko-dalmatinske (the Croatian-Slavonian-Dalmatian Newspaper), likewise its journal into the Danica horvatska, slavonska i dalmatinska (the Croatian-Slavonian-Dalmatian Morning Star).    

One of the most crucial moments in deterioration of the Croatian-Hungarian relations occurred on May 2nd, 1843 when in the Croatian-Slavonian Sabor was given the first deputy’s speech in the South Slavic language by Ivan Kukuljević who required that a Croat national language should become an official language in Croatia-Slavonia. This requirement was pointed out against a linguistic Magyarization of Croatia-Slavonia. The same purpose had requirements by the Croatian-Slavonian representatives in the Hungarian Dieta in Bratislava in 1843 and 1844 to speak in Dieta in the Latin language, but not in the Hungarian. However, their requirement after a long discussion was rejected by the Hungarian deputies in Dieta, which became the crucial reason for the Croatian-Slavonian representatives to boycott the further sessions of the assembly. Nevertheless, when they left the Dieta, the same assembly decided that the Hungarian language had to be introduced in Croatia-Slavonia within the period of next ten years as the only official language. Nevertheless, this decision was not recognized by the Hungarian King (who was at the same time and the Austrian Emperor) and, therefore, did not receive the legal royal confirmation.[3]

The year 1844 is of threefold importance for both the movement and Croat national politics:

  1. The Illyrian Movement, now under the new name, achieved great political-national success in Dalmatia in 1844 when the newspaper Zora dalmatinska (the Dalmatian Dawn) started to be published in the city of Zadar/Zara. Its editor and publisher, Ante Kuzmanić, chose ikavian sub-dialect of the štokavian dialect, for the language of his newspaper, but not ijekavian sub-dialect in which the Serbian literal journal in Dalmatia was published already from 1838 in the city of Zadar under the title Србско-далматински магазин (Serbian-Dalmatian Magazine) edited by Božidar Petranović. In fact, Ante Kuzmanić recognized the ijekavian sub-dialect of the štokavian dialect as solely Serbian national language (in which the best examples of Ragusian literature from the mid-15th century was written), while the ikavian he considered as the national language of the Croats. Nonetheless, publishing of Zora dalmatinska marked a beginning of spreading of the ideas of the Illyrian Movement in Dalmatia and later on of the Croat national ideology in this multiethnic, multilingual and multiconfessional province populated by the Croats, Serbs, and Italians.[4]
  2. In the same year (1844) it took place another important cultural event in Croatia in regard to the spreading out of the Croat national consciousness among the South Slavic Roman Catholics of the štokavian In the other words, at that year the Matica hrvatska, a supreme cultural institution of the Croat national revival movement, published the master-piece of the Ragusian epic Baroque literature – the Osman by Ivan (Dživo) Gundulić (1589–1638) with comments written by Ivan Mažuranić. This epic work was published in the original language in which it was written – ijekavian sub-dialect of the štokavian dialect. Subsequently, the leaders of the movement emphasized the “Croat” national character of the Ragusian history and culture that was immediately severely criticized by the Serb intellectuals and the public workers.[5]
  3. Finally, the political program of the movement was published as well as in 1844 by Bogoslav Šulek (a Croatized Slovak), in the booklet under the headline Što namĕravaju Iliri? (What do Illyrians Want?).

However, a previous imperial/royal decree upon the prohibition of the use of the Illyrian name was partially abolished on January 3rd, 1845 by the new imperial/royal order, according to which the Illyrian name could be used only in the literature, but not in the politics. The obvious change in the Austrian policy towards the Croats can be seen and from the fact that the Emperor allowed a foundation of the Department of the Illyrian language and literature at the Zagreb Academy.[6] At the same time, the censorship in Croatia-Slavonia was weakened. These changes in Croatia-Slavonia were closely connected with the new Austrian political course toward the Hungarians (Magyars) as the Habsburg Emperor intended to attract the Illyrians to the Austrian side in the German struggle against the ruling Hungarian Conservative Party in Pest and to make use of open clash between two political parties in Croatia-Slavonia: the mađaroni and the narodnjaci.

The most serious open clash between these two political groups in Croatia-Slavonia occurred on July 29th, 1845 in Zagreb. After the mađaron’s victory on the elections in Croatia-Slavonia, the fights on the streets between the members of these two parties took place and after the intervention of the army, they were transformed in the bloodshed. Thirteen people were murdered and 27 wounded. The local inhabitants were embittered and immediately the mađaroni and Ban Haller were accused to be the provocateurs of this bloody event. The funeral of the so-called Srpanjske žrtve (the July victims) became transformed into a peaceful demonstration against the violence, but also against the current political regime in Croatia-Slavonia.[7]

The Croat protesters required ecclesiastical, cultural and political independence for Croatia-Slavonia from Hungary. In other words, they required that a Croatian-Slavonian Archbishoprics will be established, likewise the national university and national independent government autonomous from Pest. Under the public pressure, a Croatia-Slavonia’s Ban Haller stepped back. A Hungarian outstanding political figure, Lajos Kossuth, accused the Croats of the high treason of the Hungarian state. These events from July 1845 became an introduction for the open war between the Croats (supported at that time by the Serbs) and the Hungarians during the time of the Hungarian Revolution and the War of Independence in 1848–1849.[8]

In the year 1846, the Illyrian Movement won the most important linguistic-political battle when the poem Smrt Smail-age Čengića, written by Ivan Mažuranić, was published in Zagreb in the štokavian dialect, which became soon accepted by the Croat intelligentsia as the literal language of all Croats. It is important to say that the author’s mother tongue was the čakavian but not štokavian dialect – a fact which was and is used by the Serbs as crucial evidence of the political Croatization of the Serb national language.

However, the poem Smrt Smail-age Čengića presented a victory of the aim of the leaders of the Illyrian Movement to promote exactly the štokavian dialect as the official literal language for all Croats.[9] In the same 1846 year, Petar Preradović published the Prvenci, Bogoslav Šulek published Pregled starije hrvatske književnosti and the most important composer of the Croatian national revival movement – Vatroslav Lisinski (authentic name and surname are of the Hungarian origin), performed the first national (Croatian) opera – the Ljubav i zloba.

In the struggle to introduce the “Croatian” national language as the official language in Croatia-Slavonia, in the year 1847 came about the crucial turning point when on October 23rd, the Croatian-Slavonian feudal Assembly proclaimed the štokavian speech as an official one in Croatia-Slavonia instead of the Latin one. At the same time, the Assembly’s deputies required territorial-administrative incorporation of the city of Rijeka/Fiume into Dalmatia, an establishing of the Zagreb Archbishoprics and finally the respectfulness of the Croatian historical-state (municipal) rights by the Hungarian Government in Pest.

As the Hungarian feudal Assembly in Bratislava did not accept these decisions of the Croatian-Slavonian Sabor, a special commission was formed in order to solve the problem of these Croat requirements. Lajos Kossuth became appointed as a President of the commission, which influenced the Hungarian Assembly in Bratislava to issue an order upon the introduction of the Latin language as the official one in Croatia-Slavonia instead of the Hungarian. However, the Emperor-King did not give a necessary legal sanction to this order and thus indirectly recognized aforementioned the Croat national-political requirements.

Therefore, it was in 1847 the greatest twofold victory of the Croat national struggle at the time:

  1. To fight the Hungarian policy of linguistic Magyarization of Croatia-Slavonia as a historical province of a (Greater) Kingdom of Hungary.
  2. To lay down a foundation for the very successful Croatization of all the South Slavic Roman Catholic štokavian speakers who naturally, otherwise, would accept in the course of time the Serb ethnic name instead of the Croat one.

Subsequently, as the most important requirements and political aims of the Illyrian Movement became in essence realized in 1847, this year marks de facto the end of the movement itself – a movement which in the following years accepted only the Croat national name with a continuation of the previous Illyrian policy of Croatization of all the Roman Catholic štokavians

Conclusions

The Illyrian Movement (1830–1847) presents the most important period of the Croat national(istic) revival movement, which was one of the strongest national revival movements that emerged in the Austrian Empire (Habsburg Monarchy) in the first half of the 19th century. It expressed the cultural, political, linguistic, and economic requirements and interests of the young Croat liberal bourgeoisie, intelligentsia and partially of the Croat feudal aristocracy, who used the movement for the promotion of their own historical feudal rights but and nationalistic claims.

The Croatian Illyrian Movement, backed by the Habsburg authorities in Vienna, focused its goals toward four basic political-national issues:

  1. The respectfulness of the self-interpreted Croat historical and national rights as the legal foundation for the further nationalistic claims on the territory populated by the South Slavs.
  2. The struggle against the linguistic Magyarization of Croatia-Slavonia.
  3. The Croatization of all štokavian-speaking Roman Catholic South Slavs at the Balkans.
  4. The creation of a Greater Croatia as a separate administrative-political province within the Habsburg Monarchy.

The main requirements by the leaders of the movement were:

  1. The introduction of the “Croat” national language in Croatia-Slavonia as the official one.
  2. The creation of a single literal language for all Croats based on the talks of the ordinary people.
  3. The realization of economic reforms.
  4. The preservation and enlargement of the national state-historical (municipal) rights and privileges.
  5. The political unification of all Croat historical and ethnolinguistic territories into a Greater Croatia.

However, the leadership of the Illyrian Movement promoted the štokavian dialect of the South Slavs as a Croat national literal language – a dialect that was spoken and written at the time of the movement by all Serbs and only tiny minority of the Croats. As a result, the Croats started to use as their own literal language from the time of the movement up to the present-day a Serb literal/vernacular language – the fact recognized even by the leader of the movement, Ljudevit Gaj, himself.[10] Officially, the ultimate goal of such linguistic policy was to create for all South Slavs a common literal language which will become the basic foundation for their cultural and political unification, particularly of the Serbs and the Croats.

However, such linguistic policy was heavily criticized by the most eminent Serb philologists, politicians and historians in the 19th and 20th centuries as a hidden policy of the Croatization of Dalmatia, Dubrovnik, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, the Austrian Military Border, Srem, and Slavonia – the South Slavic provinces in which the štokavian-speaking Serbs were in majority.

Finally, one of the crucial political achievements of the Illyrian Movement is that the Croat national name became spread out and used from the mid-19th century up today by the majority of the Roman Catholic South Slavs whose mother tongue was the štokavian written by the Latin script.

 

Prof. Dr. Vladislav B. Sotirović

www.global-politics.eu/sotirovic

sotirovic@global-politics.eu

© Vladislav B. Sotirović 2020

 

Endnotes:

[1] J. Horvat, Politička povjest Hrvatske, I, Zagreb, 1990, 79–80; T. Macan, Povjest Hrvatskog naroda, Zagreb, 1992, 254; П. Милосављевић, Срби и њихов језик: Хрестоматија, Приштина: Народна и универзитетска библиотека, 1997, 28–30.

[2] D. Pavličević, Povijest Hrvatske. Drugo, izmijenjeno i prošireno izdanje, Zagreb: Naklada P.I.P. Pavičić, 2000, 253.

[3] M. Šicer, Riznica Ilirska 1835–1885, Zagreb−Ljubljana, 1985, 187–190; J. Šidak et al., Hrvatski narodni preporod-Ilirski pokret, Drugo izdanje, Zagreb, 1990, 156–160.

[4] On history and culture of Dalmatia, see [L. Wolff, Venice and the Slavs. The Discovery of Dalmatia in the Age of Enlightenment, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001; A. Travirka, Dalmatia: History, Culture, Art Heritage, Zadar: Forum, 2006; L. Monzali, The Italians of Dalmatia: From Italian Unification to World War I, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2009; S. Trifkovic, The Krajina Chronicle. A History of Serbs in Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia, Chicago−Ottawa−London: The Lord Byron Foundation for Balkan Studies, 2010; D. K. Reill, Nationalists Who Feared the Nation. Adriatic Multi-Nationalism in Habsburg Dalmatia, Trieste, and Venice, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2012; M. M. Holbach, Dalmatia: The Land Where East Meets West, Ulan Press, 2012].

[5] About Serbian character of the Republic of Ragusa (Dubrovnik), see in [Ч. Антић, Српска историја, Четврто издање, Vukotić Media, Београд: 2019, 80−85].

[6] T. Macan, Povjest hrvatskog naroda, Zagreb, 1992, 283.

[7] D. Pavličević, Povijest Hrvatske. Drugo, izmijenjeno i prošireno izdanje, Zagreb: Naklada P.I.P. Pavičić, 2000, 253–254; J. Horvat, Politička povjest hrvatskog naroda, I, Zagreb, 1990, 87–90.

[8] About the Croatian-Hungarian struggle in 1848–1849, see [L. Kontler, Millenium in Central Europe: A History of Hungary, Budapest: Atlantisz Publishing House, 1999, 246–261]. On the Hungarian Revolution and War of Independence in 1848−1849, see [L. Kossuth, I. Deak, The Lawful Revolution: Louis Kossuth and the Hungarians, 1848−1949, Columbia University Press, 1979; J. Noszko, Kossuth and Gorgey. The Political-Military Relationship in the Hungarian War of Independence, 1848−1849, BiblioScholar, 2012; Ch. Pridham, Kossuth and Magyar Land: Personal Adventures During the War in Hungary, Ulan Press, 2012].

[9] J. Horvat, Ljudevit Gaj. Njegov život–njegovo doba, Zagreb, 1975, 230.

[10] “…u koga se je sačuvao čisti jezik ilirski, u koga običaji, tko li nam je ponajviše gojio od kolena do kolena narodne pĕsme ilirske? U svakom odgovoru naći ćete Sèrblje i Sèrbstvo” [Lj. Gaj, “Čije je kolo?”, Danica ilirska, 31, Zagreb, 1. 8. 1846].

READ MORE!
The Strategy of the Intermarium
May 12 to 14 marks the 90th anniversary of the coup by Józef Piłsudski in Poland with which the Polish bourgeoisie tried to save its rule from the threat of socialist revolution. Today, he is being idealized by large sections of the Polish bourgeoisie and the US imperialist elite.In large measure, this is bound up with the increasing popularity of his conception of the Intermarium, a pro-imperialist alliance of right-wing nationalist regimes throughout Eastern Europe that was primarily directed against the Soviet Union. The resurgent interest in the Intermarium has been bound up with the increasing drive toward a new ...
READ MORE
Understanding Jewish Power: Who has Helped Create a War-Addicted America?
I recently was asked to speak at an online conference entitled Deep Truth: Encountering Deep State Lies. My panel addressed Understanding Zionism: Deconstructing the Power Paradigm and my own topic was How Jewish Power Sustains the Israel Narrative. Working on my presentation, I was forced to confront the evolution of my own views on both the corruption of government in the United States and the ability of powerful domestic lobbies to deliberately distort the perception of national interests to benefit foreign countries even when that activity does terrible damage to the U.S. My personal journey began half a century ago. I ...
READ MORE
Washington’s Bizarre Kosovo Strategy could Destroy NATO
Not satisfied with having sponsored the artificial creation of Kosovo, the United States has now decided to ram the mafia state through NATO and the European Union. A new member with such characteristics is the last thing that Europe needs right now. However, it should work wonders for the consolidation of U.S. political and military agenda in the region, not to speak of the flourishing heroin trade from Afghanistan…both of which, as Engdahl points out in this sharp analysis, pose a threat to Russia and may backfire in the end.In one of the more bizarre foreign policy announcements of a ...
READ MORE
“Putinism” in American History
Many articles in the US press have speculated at length in an attempt to define a new ideology called “Putinism.” The pieces serve as an attempt to fit Putin into an outdated Cold War narrative, as if some new ideology in the Russian Federation is playing the role that Marxism-Leninism once played in the Soviet Union, though the current Russian constitution forbids this. The notable leaders of history are rarely ideologues. History judges people mainly by what they achieve, not what they write or say. As Chinese President Xi Jinping recently put it: “The worth of any plan is in its ...
READ MORE
If NATO Wants Peace and Stability it Should Stay Home
A curious op-ed appeared in The National Interest, penned by Hans Binnendijk and David Gompert, adjunct senior fellows at the RAND Corporation. Titled, “NATO’s Role in post-Caliphate Stability Operations,” it attempts to make a case for NATO involvement everywhere from Libya to Syria and Iraq in fostering stability in the wake of a yet-to-be defeated Islamic State. The authors propose that NATO step in to fill what it calls an impending “vacuum left as the caliphate collapses,” heading off alternatives including “chaos or Iran, backed by Russia, filling the void, with great harm to U.S. and allied interests in either case.” The op-ed never explains why ...
READ MORE
The NYT’s Yellow Journalism on Russia
Reading The New York Times these days is like getting a daily dose of the “Two Minutes Hate” as envisioned in George Orwell’s 1984, except applied to America’s new/old enemy Russia. Even routine international behavior, such as Russia using fictitious names for potential adversaries during a military drill, is transformed into something weird and evil. In the snide and alarmist style that the Times now always applies to Russia, reporter Andrew Higgins wrote – referring to a fictitious war-game “enemy” – “The country does not exist, so it has neither an army nor any real citizens, though it has acquired a ...
READ MORE
Financial Times Finally Prints the Unvarnished Truth: Kiev is the Violent Aggressor in East Ukraine
Even those in Donetsk who originally supported Kiev have come to realize that Ukraine is waging a war against its own people. The Ukrainian army’s shelling has turned many formerly pro-Ukrainian locals against Kiev Although this article tries to make the people of Donetsk appear gullible and indoctrinated, it does make one incredible admission: Kiev is waging a vicious war against its own people—something that East Ukrainians will never forget, and probably never forgive. This article originally appeared in Financial Times As world leaders convened in Minsk this week to decide the fate of east Ukraine, Tatiana Prussova, a teacher at Khartsysk school ...
READ MORE
Jamala ‘Won’ Singing Paean to Tatar SS Nazis
I don’t want to discuss the musical merits of who should have won the recent Eurovision amateur song contest in Stockholm. It’s brazenly clear that the Ukrainian ethnic Tatar Jamala won in a rigged contest to make a political intervention. As she subsequently openly admitted, it was between the actions of Stalin in World War II against Crimean Tatars and the actions of Moscow in 2014 in Crimea. The song of Jamala was blatantly political and by Eurovision rules ought to be grounds to strip her of the title regardless of her singing talent or lack of same. What is ...
READ MORE
Golan Heights, Kosovo and Crimea: A Case Study in Hypocrisy and Double Standards
The recent announcement by United States President Donald Trump that the US will recognise Israel’s sovereignty over the Golan Heights draws attention yet again to the double standards applied by NATO and its satraps including Australia to the issues of territorial integrity, the right to self-determination, and international law. Three cases illustrate the duplicity and double standards of the Western nations. They may be reviewed chronologically.A picture taken on July 4, 2018 from the Israeli-annexed Syrian Golan Heights shows displaced Syrians from the province of Daraa staging a protest (top L) calling for international protection, in the Syrian the ...
READ MORE
The Six Day War – Myth and Reality
The Six Day War of June 1967, a series of battles fought by the armed forces of the state of Israel against a combination of Arab armies, is one of manifold significance. From a military standpoint, it presented a model strategy of how to prosecute and win a war waged on several fronts. The stunning victory also created a sense of euphoria among communities in the Jewish Diaspora: Among American Jews, a segment of Jewry David Ben Gurion viewed with disdain because of their failure to migrate en masse to Israel, a new sense of commitment in both emotional and financial ...
READ MORE
NATO Doesn’t Care that Montenegro is a Haven for Crime and Corruption
There was international jubilation when Montenegro seceded from its union with Serbia in 2006 after a controversial referendum. The Referendum Law prevented Montenegrins living and registered in Serbia from voting in the referendum, ensuring that tens of thousands of Montenegrins, in a country of only 622,000, who would have voted to remain the union could not vote in favour of maintaining it.It must be remembered that state-paid workers like teachers and police were told by the Democratic Party of Socialists (DPS) leader Miodrag Vuković before the referendum May 2006, that someone “cannot work for the state and vote against it,” something objectively ...
READ MORE
Who will Secure Lithuania?
The term “security” is a very multifaceted one. But today’s geopolitical situation forces us to think about its military aspect above all.Our attention is completely absorbed by news about wars, conflicts, military exercises and increasing defence capabilities. An average European reader has no chances to skip this kind of news while looking through news feeds of popular media.Even planned further militarization of the European region and Russia pose the real threat today. A whole generation of European children is growing in the firm belief that the war is approaching. We destroy ourselves by our fears. We notice everything concerning military ...
READ MORE
From the History of Anti-Russian Policy: The First Balkan Alliance (1866−1868)
The creation of the First Balkan Alliance against the Ottoman Empire in 1866–1868 in the light of territorial requirements of the Balkan states and nations at the expense of the decreasing power of the Ottoman authorities and the Ottoman state integration was the first political-military treaty on the mutual cooperation by the Christian Balkan states and nations. The secret paragraphs of bilateral military-political contracts between Greece and Serbia and Serbia and Montenegro in regard to territorial inheritance of the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans are the most important points of the treaty. Serbia became a leader of the Balkan coalition and ...
READ MORE
Greece in the Mediterranean Security System
With respect to Greece’s role in the Mediterranean security system, the multilateralist formula applied to the region including the Balkans as well as is the orienting principle for the Greek foreign policy since the end of the Cold War. Since 1994, the opportunities for NATO’s and EU’s initiatives were more than apparent for Athens when Greece (wrongly) understood the Euro-Atlantic community as a fundamental security player for the extending the values of security and co-operation into this structurally unbalanced region. During the Cold War, the Greek policy-makers also found (wrongly) since 1952 that the US-led NATO offered allegedly excellent opportunities ...
READ MORE
Mass Killings of Serbs for Organs Only Boosted in Kosovo, But it Started Earlier in Croatia, Vukovar
Contrary to the popular belief, the bloodiest trade in history (when organs were taken away from captured and imprisoned Kosovo Serbs),  did not begin in Kosovo, but in Croatia. As reported by the Serbian media in the process  conducted by EULEX mission in Kosovo , ” one of the accused confessed about  participating in human organ sale”. Driton Jiljta  pleaded guilty to the indictment charging him with “abuse of authority and illegal medical activity.” This case is  apart of larger process and the prosecution has charged seven Albanians and two foreigners for trafficking , organized crime and transplantation formulized as  “illegal medical ...
READ MORE
America’s Top Scientists Confirm: U.S. Goal Now is to Conquer Russia
The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists published a study, on 1 March 2017, which opened as follows: “The US nuclear forces modernization program has been portrayed to the public as an effort to ensure the reliability and safety of warheads in the US nuclear arsenal, rather than to enhance their military capabilities. In reality, however, that program has implemented revolutionary new technologies that will vastly increase the targeting capability of the US ballistic missile arsenal. This increase in capability is astonishing — boosting the overall killing power of existing US ballistic missile forces by a factor of roughly three — and ...
READ MORE
Illegal Occupation of Southern Serbia: Kosovo – Analysis
Serbia today is a member-State of United Nations (U.N.), after the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was split into several nations during the early 1990’s when war broke out between Serbian General Milosevic and neighboring nations. After partition, Serbia is still the most powerful “state” of the former Yugoslavia. “Kosovo”, the term used for the territory of southern Serbia, is de-jure recognised as a “state” by over 110+ “states”, but is not a “state” itself, as per the Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States (1933), and is not a “state” at the U.N. where 2/3rd positive vote is ...
READ MORE
This is the Real, Americanized, Nazi-Dominated Ukraine
Such important reality as is shown in this picture is virtually unpublishable in mainstream US ‘news’media, because US ‘news’media need to deceive their public about the most important international realities — such as that the US imposed upon Ukraine a nazi regime against Russia, and the US now lies to accuse Russia for doing what Russia must do in order to protect itself from the US nazi regime next-door. This picture is among many which were originally published in the excellent 4 July 2018 article by Asa Winstanley at The Electronic Intifada. His article was headlined "Israel is arming neo-Nazis in Ukraine”. That article focuses upon Israel’s strong support for ...
READ MORE
United States War Crimes
Human Rights Day, December 10, 2016, we bring to the attention of our readers an important article published in 2002 on the record of US war crimes. The issue of War Crimes emerged after World War I at the Versailles Conference, but it was not until the end of World War II that a more comprehensive definition of what constitutes war crimes was developed. First among new international conventions addressing war crimes was the 1950 Charter of the Nuremberg Tribunal. Its fundamental premise was that the conduct of war in violation of international treaties was a crime against peace. Ill treatment ...
READ MORE
The Collapsing of Yugoslavia (1981‒1990)
Tito’s policy in the 1970s of the so-called “encourage and suppress” for the sake to struggle against politically undesirable and threatening ethnic nationalisms especially the Croat and the Serb ones appeared to be incoherent one. In another words, while some ethnic nationalisms and their ideologies were considered to be dangerous to the system and, therefore, were suppressed and their advocates were jailed or banned from employment[i] (the case, for instance, of the Serbian dissident professors from Belgrade University), other nationalisms, supposed to be non-dangerous for the regime were encouraged by the local Communist elites (for instance, the Albanian nationalism in ...
READ MORE
The Strategy of the Intermarium
Understanding Jewish Power: Who has Helped Create a War-Addicted America?
Washington’s Bizarre Kosovo Strategy could Destroy NATO
“Putinism” in American History
If NATO Wants Peace and Stability it Should Stay Home
The NYT’s Yellow Journalism on Russia
Financial Times Finally Prints the Unvarnished Truth: Kiev is the Violent Aggressor in East Ukraine
Jamala ‘Won’ Singing Paean to Tatar SS Nazis
Golan Heights, Kosovo and Crimea: A Case Study in Hypocrisy and Double Standards
The Six Day War – Myth and Reality
NATO Doesn’t Care that Montenegro is a Haven for Crime and Corruption
Who will Secure Lithuania?
From the History of Anti-Russian Policy: The First Balkan Alliance (1866−1868)
Greece in the Mediterranean Security System
Mass Killings of Serbs for Organs Only Boosted in Kosovo, But it Started Earlier in Croatia, Vukovar
America’s Top Scientists Confirm: U.S. Goal Now is to Conquer Russia
Illegal Occupation of Southern Serbia: Kosovo – Analysis
This is the Real, Americanized, Nazi-Dominated Ukraine
United States War Crimes
The Collapsing of Yugoslavia (1981‒1990)
Global-Politics.eu

Written by Global-Politics.eu

SHORT LEGAL DISCLAIMER: The website’s owner & editor-in-chief has no official position on any issue published at this website. The views of the authors presented at this website do not necessarily coincide with the opinion of the owner & editor-in-chief of the website. The contents of all material (articles, books, photos, videos…) are of sole responsibility of the authors. The owner & editor-in-chief of this website is not morally, scientifically or legally responsible for any inaccurate or incorrect statement in the contents of all material found on this website. The owner & editor-in-chief of this website is not responsible for the content of external internet sites. No advertising, government or corporate funding for the functioning of this website. The owner & editor-in-chief and authors are not morally, scientifically or legally responsible for any inaccurate or incorrect statement in the text and material found on the website www.global-politics.eu

Website: http://www.global-politics.eu