The Power of the Internet in Politics

Hits: 243

Future war “may see attacks via computer viruses, worms, logic bombs, and trojan horses rather than bullets, bombs, and missiles” 

[Steven Metz, Armed Conflict in the 21st Century: The Information Revolution and Post-Modern Warfare, Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, 2000, xiii].

First part

The facilities of the Internet in politics

The Internet or the WWW (World Wide Web) became massively widespread around the globe since the late 1980s or more precisely since 1989 – in the same year when the Berlin Wall collapsed and, therefore, enabled the Cold War 1.0 to enter the final stage of its end. That is why both of these historical events mark the start of the Turbo-Globalization Era in all spheres from economy to culture including politics as well.[i] With the growing importance of the Internet, it is quite understandable that it is becoming an arena of political and ideological rivalry with necessary growing implications concerning national security issues.[ii]

The spread of mass media via the Internet followed by the communications within the framework of cyber-space[iii] enable ever more people, even in remote corners of the globe, to be informed (or misinformed) about the world affairs, form (or to accept) opinions about certain events, and to be involved in politics in ways that some 30−35 years ago have been unimaginable. Today, even poor peasants in many parts of the world have access to the Internet that provide information and give both Government’s and anti-Government’s groups new way to struggle for their ideas, ideologies, and programs in order to indoctrinate publics.

The Internet already became the focal instrument of all in facilitating the exchange of different viewpoints, dissemination of information, fake news or propaganda, movement of electronic money, and finally the coordination of activities for the obvious reason as it is inexpensive and easily accessible. The bloggers with their weblogs are influencing mass of people across the globe by transmitting both information and disinformation and opinion on the Internet.[iv] After the end of the Cold War 1.0, a new Cold War 2.0 started in which the Great Powers started to adopt smart weapons to fight conventional wars, weapons that utilize new information and communication technologies like the Internet or cyber-space. A new type of warfare emerged – cyber-war.[v]

What concerns the politics, the focal impact of the Internet on it can be summarized into four basic points:

  1. The real technical possibility of the Internet to increase and improve the transparency of the Government by free access to online content, official documents, and all kinds of governmental reports and viewpoints on different issues and problems.
  2. The ability of the Internet to increase the politically relevant set of information of both natures factual and hoax.
  3. Its power to organize and speed up the coordination of different interest groups, extremist groups, and the so-called civil society beyond something that was known before as traditional political areas and barriers.
  4. The creation of new forms of criminal activities known as cyber-crime, cyber-terrorism, or cyber-security problems.

In regard with the first point of the possibility to increase transparency, Governments, the NGOs, and different institutions in global governance (like the OUN) have created several millions of Web-pages for the purpose to offer political information as official reports, viewpoints, comments, contact forums or strategy rationalizations. Many Governments, established increasing targets for the maximum proportion of their communication with the citizens via the Internet.

Nevertheless, if we are speaking about information flows, the Internet is offering for sure a cheap and easy platform for many types of populist movements, parties, or organizations seeking to indoctrinate and attract a possible voting audience at the elections.[vi] One such very successful examples, as a matter of illustration, was by the US Democrats in the presidential election of Barack Obama in 2008.

The facility of the Internet allows for greater communication of identity politics like, for instance, those witnessed during the British referendum to leave the EU – the Brexit.[vii] However, another facility that the Internet offers in practice is the spreading of propaganda[viii] by extremist persons or organizations for most different purposes. One of such most blatant recent examples of misusing of the Internet facilities for the very political and/or ideological purposes is used by the ISIS[ix] and other Islamic fundamentalist or radical groups[x] for the recruitment strategies.

The Internet in general and social media in particular as well as provide powerful platforms for the greater dissemination of the so-called fake news. Such news is a form of uncorroborated media is popularized by many of online views generated, rather than from traditional forms of independent channels of verification. Concerning the former, many experts would argue that both the promotion of fake-news and targeted viewer profiling on the Internet (particularly on Twitter) tremendously participated in the election of Donald Trump for US President in November 2016. 

One of the crucial power features of cyber-space is that it poses real challenges to Governments as the Internet facilitates mobilization and coordination by professionals, freedom fighters, insurgents, criminals, and terrorists of all kinds. As a good example of the using Internet against authoritarian regimes can be the case of  WikiLeaks in April 2010 when a video that showed a US helicopter in Baghdad killing a dozen Iraqis including two journalists appeared on the net.   

Cyber-crime 

Cyber-crime, in essence, refers to traditional types of crimes that just migrated to cyberspace (the Internet), such as money laundering or sexual exploitation. However, the cyber-crime as well as include the internet specific criminal activities like illegal access to electronic information, trade, national or political secrets, and finally the creation and spread of dangerous computer viruses which can impose political or national-security harmfulness.

Cyber-crime committed by individuals or state-sponsored cyber-attacks undoubtedly are posing serious threats to the international community in general or a particular part of it for the very reason they are in principle designed to degrade, deny or even destroy information resident in computers or to compromise computers themselves. Such activities of cyber-attacks or cyber-terrorism are committed with the ultimate task to inflict disruption, destruction, or human loss.     

Cyber-crime can be a foremost threat to individuals, industry, or/and political organizations as well as. But in political terms, the cyber-crime can question the proper function of the state and its political system if the latter persistently fails to control such criminal activity or if it suffering breakdowns in cyber-security.

One of the very specific types of cyber-crime is cyber-terrorism. It basically refers to the (mis)use of the Internet facilities by different organizations to promote terrorist propaganda and activities. The terrorist groups can use the Internet as a domain to commit cyber-attacks by, for example, targeting networks or computers which belong to the governmental, public, or military infrastructures. The most notorious up to now cyber-program used in cyber-crimes is the so-called trojan horse – program in which a code is contained inside a program or data so that it can take control of a computer for the sake to damage it. However, an additional danger can be posed by computer trap doors or back doors – deliberate holes in computer programs that are used to gain unauthorized access to a computer or a computer network for the reasons to spy or/and cause destruction of the computer system.[xi]

However, the Internet as well as can be (mis)used to perpetrate acts of terror that produce physical or mental damage but in extreme cases, cyber-terrorists can incur individual criminal responsibility under international criminal law where their conduct is understood as supporting war crime, aggression, crimes against humanity, or genocide. In war terminology, cyber-war is the use of the system of information for the purpose to exploit, disrupt, or destroy an enemy’s military or civilian computer networks with the ultimate aim of disrupting those systems and the tasks they perform.[xii] Cyber-war is war in cyber-space that is already a new fifth military domain after land, sea, air, and space.  

Endnotes:

[i] Michael Meyer, The Year that Changed the World: The Untold Story Behind the Fall of the Berlin Wall, New York: Scribner, 2009; Brian McCullough, How the Internet happened: From Netscape to the iPhone, New York−London: Liveright Publishing Corporation, 2018.

[ii] See more in [John Erikkson, Giampiero Giacomello, “The Information Revolution, Security, and International Relations: (IR) Relevant Theory?”, International Political Science Review, 27/3, 2006, 221−224].

[iii] Cyber-space is “electronic medium of computer networks in which online communication takes place” [Richard W. Mansbach, Kirsten L. Taylor, Introduction to Global Politics, Second Edition, London−New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, 2012, 575].

[iv] Daniel W. Drezner, Henry Farrell, “Web of Influence”, Foreign Policy, 145, 2004, 32−40.

[v] About cyber-war, see more in [Richard A. Clarke, Robert Knake, Cyber War, New York: HarperCollins, 2010]. This book is giving a picture of cyber-war and its capabilities which afford potential enemies.

[vi] See, for instance [Pipa Norris, Ronald Inglehart, Cultural Backlash: Trump, Brexit, and Authoritarian Populism, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2019].

[vii] The Brexit is abbreviated term by the British, meaning literary shorthand for the British leaving of the European Union. The Brexit refers to the debates in the direct connections with June 23rd, 2016 referendum for the UK to exit the EU. The Brexit referendum became a debate between two camps in the UK – those for the British leaving the EU vs. those for the British standing in the EU. About the Brexit issue, see more in [Harold D. Clarke, Matthew Goodwin, Paul Whiteley, Brexit: Why Britain Voted to Leave the European Union, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2017].

[viii] The term propaganda is historically originating in an office of the Roman Catholic Church in the Vatican charged with the propagation of the (Roman Catholic) faith – de propaganda fide. The term propaganda entered common usage in the 1930s in order to describe at that time the authoritarian regimes to achieve total subordination of knowledge to the policy of the state. Based on the politics of different kinds of authoritarian and totalitarian political regimes in Europe to develop legitimacy and social control by the centralized governmental institutions, propaganda soon came to be directed toward the populations of other states (usually the neighbours), provoking reactions from the other states. Therefore, for instance, the UK established the Ministry of Information. Such ministries employed print, radio, film, graphic art, and the oral word in order to justify the official policy of their Governments (the White Propaganda) but at the same time to beat the enemy’s propaganda (the Black Propaganda). Propaganda was quite important in the international relations during the Cold War 1.0 especially via radio stations like Radio Free Europe or Voice of America which have been propagating the official values of the Western political liberal democracy and market economy. Today, the Western political propaganda either via the Internet or other technical means is mainly directed against Russia and China in the forms of (extreme) Russophobia and Sinophobia. See more about propaganda in [Jason Stanley, How Propaganda Works, Princeton, US−Oxford, UK: Princeton University Press, 2015].       

[ix] The ISIS (the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria) is an international terrorist organization based in both Iraq and Syria. The organization is known as well as the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (the ISIL) and as the Daesh (the Da’esh). See more in [Gus Martin, Understanding Terrorism: Challenges, Perspectives, and Issues, Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE, 2017; William McCants, The ISIS Apocalypse: The History, Strategy, and Doomsday Vision of the Islamic State, New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2015]. 

[x] The term Islamic fundamentalism or as a synonym Islamism is used in the West (especially in the USA and the UK) to mark any movement or organization which is favouring strict respect for the teaching of both the Qur’an and the Shari’a that is the Islamic Law.

[xi] See in more detail in [Jonathan Kirshner (ed.), Globalization and National Security, New York: Routledge, 2006].

[xii] Richard W. Mansbach, Kirsten L. Taylor, Introduction to Global Politics, Second Edition, London−New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, 2012, 575.

Second part

The legal measures against cyber-crime 

During the last decade or so, cyber-crime of all types is increasingly understood to be war-like attacks on states and their infrastructure and, therefore, are regulated mostly by the international legal framework relating to the use of force or, in the case committed at the time of war (armed conflict), by international humanitarian law.

All countries, or groups of countries, which are considered to belong to the Great Powers bloc implemented certain legal and practical measures to counter the cyber-crime on their authorized territory. One of the best successful examples so far is the Council of Europe which adopted the Convention on Cyber-crime in 2001 and 2004 by which established a common criminal policy among the Member States by both adopting appropriate legislative framework and encouraging transnational cooperation on the global level in the practice of beating cyber-crime in all spheres including the politics as well as. If we can speak in more precise legal terms, according to the legal framework of the European Council concerning beating cyber-crime, the Member States should criminalize illegal access, illegal interference, and at the same time, the Member States should cooperate by all possible legal and practical means in their examination and prosecution policies.[i]  

It is clear decision by the OUN that such cyber-activities are undermining the global or regional peace process and security and, therefore, the organization called all its Member States to prohibit incitement to commit terrorism, take as possible as active measures for the sake to prevent incitement and deny safe haven to persons or group of persons who are guilty of incitement. Nevertheless, it is clear that any kind of adopted cyber-security measure must comply with the protection of international standards of human rights like the freedom of speech and association or the right to privacy.

As a matter of fact, within the legal framework of international agreements aimed for the suppression of terrorism in general, and more particularly on the Internet, states are subject to many international legal obligations that require their struggle against cyber-terrorism within the Internet space that is controlled by them. It is, for instance, the case of the UNSC which adopted several resolutions by which all the UN Member States are required to act against terrorist activities within their borders including cyber-terrorism too.

Endnotes:

[i] See more in [Robert W. Taylor, et al, Cyber Crime and Cyber Terrorism, Pearson, 2018].


Prof. Dr. Vladislav B. Sotirović

www.global-politics.eu/sotirovic

sotirovic@global-politics.eu

© Vladislav B. Sotirović 2020

Origins of images: Facebook, Twitter, Wikimedia, Wikipedia, Flickr, Google, Imageinjection, Public Domain & Pinterest.

Read our Disclaimer/Legal Statement!

Donate to Support Us

We would like to ask you to consider a small donation to help our team keep working. We accept no advertising and rely only on you, our readers, to keep us digging the truth on history, global politics and international relations.

[wpedon id=”4696″ align=”left”]

 
READ MORE!
Why the Rise of Fascism is Again the Issue
The recent 70th anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz was a reminder of the great crime of fascism, whose Nazis iconography is embedded in our consciousness. Fascism is preserved as history, as flickering footage of goose-stepping blackshirts, their criminality terrible and clear. Yet in the same liberal societies, whose war-making elites urge us never to forget, the accelerating danger of a modern kind of fascism is suppressed; for it is their fascism. “To initiate a war of aggression…,” said the Nuremberg Tribunal judges in 1946, “is not only an international crime, it is the supreme international crime, differing only from other ...
READ MORE
Install “Madam President”
“Reform always provokes rage on the part of those who profit by the old order.”  Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr.,  The Crisis of the Old Order Who are the anti-Trump protesters besmirching the name of progressives by pretending to be progresives and by refusing to accept the outcome of the presidential election?  They look like, and are acting worse than, the “white trash” that they are denouncing. I think I know who they are. They are thugs for hire and are paid by the Oligarchy to delegitimize Trump’s presidency in the way that Washington and the German Marshall Fund paid students in Kiev to ...
READ MORE
Western Christianity and its Traditional Discrimination In Favour of the Right Wing Politics
My choicest political adviser is God who told me to run for the Presidency Rev. Pat Robertson, quoted in the Church Times, March 1988. When all countries lived under absolutist governments the Churches enjoyed a much closer relationship with the State than they do in democratic societies. Some of most cruel rulers in history were happily accommodated by the Church. (Vlad the Impaler was a convert to Roman Catholicism). In recent centuries the Roman Church has always favoured authoritarian regimes that have allowed it privileges, while opposing liberal and democratic governments that have not. For example, in 1862 Pius IX concluded a ...
READ MORE
Kosovo’s Conflict: A Devastating Precedent in International Relations
During the last decade of 20th century, leading “analysts” of the New World Order were presenting the Kosovo’s issue as a democratic matter rather than a historical and geopolitical dispute. It was perceived as a political case in which one ethnic minority (Albanians) was oppressed by a “non-democratic regime” of Slobodan Milošević.The refusal of the Rambouillet Accords by the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, served as a justification for the unilateral action against Yugoslavia in March, 1999. The Rambouillet Accords called for:1) NATO administration of Kosovo as an autonomous province within Yugoslavia;2) A force of 28,000 NATO troops to maintain order ...
READ MORE
Why the West cannot Stomach Russians
When it comes to Russia or the Soviet Union, reports and historical accounts do get blurry; in the West they do, and consequently in all of its ‘client states’.Fairytales get intermingled with reality, while fabrications are masterfully injected into sub consciousness of billions of people worldwide. Russia is an enormous country, in fact the largest country on Earth in terms of territory. It is scarcely inhabited. It is deep, and as a classic once wrote: “It is impossible to understand Russia with one’s brain. One could only believe in it.”The Western mind generally doesn’t like things unknown, spiritual and complex. ...
READ MORE
A Government of Morons and War Criminals
It has become embarrassing to be an American. Our country has had four war criminal presidents in succession. Clinton twice launched military attacks on Serbia, ordering NATO to bomb the former Yugoslavia twice, both in 1995 and in 1999, so that gives Bill two war crimes. George W. Bush invaded Afghanistan and Iraq and attacked provinces of Pakistan and Yemen from the air. That comes to four war crimes for Bush. Obama used NATO to destroy Libya and sent mercenaries to destroy Syria, thereby committing two war crimes. Trump attacked Syria with US forces, thereby becoming a war criminal early ...
READ MORE
100th Anniversary of the Pontic Genocide
May 19, 1919 has different and even opposing meanings in Turkey and Greece, just as May 15, 1948, marks both the establishment of Israel and, for Palestinians, the start of the Nakba (“catastrophe”).In Turkey, this date marks the first step that led to the establishment of the Turkish Republic, while for descendants of Ottoman Greeks and Greece it marks the end of the centuries-long Pontic Greek presence on the shores of the Black Sea. Whereas Turks celebrate May 19, Greeks mourn it.   Researcher Tamer Çilingir summarised the issue in a 2016 interview with the Turkish-Armenian daily Agos:“The Pontic Genocide is the ...
READ MORE
70 Years of Disinformation: How the CIA Funded Opinion Magazines in Europe
When an intelligence agency arranges to disseminated fake news it is called “disinformation” and it is a subset of what is referred to as covert action, basically secret operations run in a foreign country to influence opinion or to disrupt the functioning of a government or group that is considered to be hostile.During the Cold War, disinformation operations were run by many of the leading players in both the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and in the opposition Warsaw Pact. Sometimes the activity and the sponsorship were clearly visible, as when Radio Free Europe and Radio Moscow would exchange barbs about ...
READ MORE
Deconstructing Russophobia
Imagine that Vladimir Putin were not a murderous autocrat and kleptocrat who has spent his fourteen years in power living up to his KGB past and dragging Russia ever back towards Communist autocracy, illiberalism, and expansionism. Imagine that instead he were one of the greatest leaders that Russia has had, whose policies have helped produce a massive rise in living standards and life expectancy, recuperation of national pride, and enforcement of the rule of law, who has tackled kleptocrats and gangsters wisely and well, whose foreign policy has on balance been realistic, diplomatic, and conducive to peace, who has presided ...
READ MORE
The Lost Journalistic Standards of Russia-gate
A danger in both journalism and intelligence is to allow an unproven or seriously disputed fact to become part of the accepted narrative where it gets widely repeated and thus misleads policymakers and citizens alike, such as happened during the run-up to war with Iraq and is now recurring amid the frenzy over Russia-gate.For instance, in a Russia-gate story on Saturday, The New York Times reported as flat fact that a Kremlin intermediary “told a Trump campaign aide, George Papadopoulos, that the Russians had ‘dirt’ on Mr. Trump’s rival, Hillary Clinton, in the form of ‘thousands of emails.’” The Times ...
READ MORE
Iran vs America: History’s Scars
A weakened leader in a powerful country can be a recipe for danger. Donald Trump's encroaching legal troubles might prove just the time for a seriously big international crisis, even a bit of a war. The obvious choice is Iran, and Trump may well have been heading that way even before his latest problems with Michael Cohen, Paul Manafort and potentially special investigator Robert Mueller. Trump may be confident of holding firm to his support base and thus ensuring the loyalty of Republican candidates in the mid-term Congressional elections. But as pressure grows on him, a conflict with Iran – encouraged ...
READ MORE
Kosovo and Crimea: What’s the Difference?
The only discussion of principle emerging from the debates over Kosovar and Crimean independence is that initiated by Woodrow Wilson towards the end of World War One, about whether national minorities have the right to self-determination. Can a smaller group be compelled to be part of a larger state, or should they be permitted to secede? To what extent do minority rights amount to a freedom to determine one’s own sovereignty? In June 1999 an international military force led by the United States annexed Kosovo, then a province in southern Serbia with a population of perhaps 1.6 million people. Virtually all ...
READ MORE
German Intelligence Service had Mafia Dossier on Kosovan President since 2005
The leak of a secret BND dossier on Hachim Thaci which reports that the newly-elected Kosovan President had links to a contract killer and was involved in the trafficking of people, arms and drugs is more confirmation that Western politicians have chosen to support Thaci in the knowledge of his criminal past.Wikileaks has leaked a secret German Federal Intelligence Service (BND) dossier on Hachim Thaci that dates back to 2005, after the former Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) leader had served the first of his two terms in office as Kosovan Prime Minister.The dossier reports that Thaci, who has recently been elected president of Kosovo, was one of the leaders of organized ...
READ MORE
The Macedonian Name Deal Threatens to Erase European Identity
The Liberal-Globalists are carrying out another socio-political experiment in the Balkan petri dish, this time using the Macedonians as lab rats for testing how to most effectively erode a people’s identity before rolling out their weaponized model for replicating this on a continental scale, which they hope will enable them to erase the various nationalisms of Europe in their quest to transform the EU into a “federation of regions”. The Republic of Macedonia and Greece reached a tentative deal to change the former’s constitutional name to the so-called “Republic of North Macedonia” as a “compromise” for Athens agreeing to Skopje’s membership ...
READ MORE
Pope Francis at Auschwitz but not at Jasenovac Slaughterhouse in Catholic Croatia
Jasenovac in Croatia was the third largest World War II concentration camp in Europe by number of victims. It was operated by the Catholic and Nazi-allied Ustasha government. Wartime Croatia has been called “one great slaughterhouse.” The prisoners – mostly Serbs, Jews and Roma had their throats cut with specially designed knives, or they were killed with axes, mallets and hammers; they were also shot, or they were hung from trees or light poles. Some were burned alive in hot furnaces, boiled in cauldrons, or drowned in the River Sava. Here the most varied forms of torture were used. Finger and toe nails were pulled out with ...
READ MORE
The Albanian Origin: The Main Challenges of Research
We must be clear on the meaning of Albanian autochthony, anthroponymy and ethnogenesis. Actually, the question is: have the Albanians lived without interruption in the  present-day “ethnic” territories of the Albanians (Albania, the Eastern Montenegro, Kosovo and Metohija, the Southern Central Serbia, the Western Macedonia and the Northern Epirus in Greece) since the ancient Greek and Roman times? In the other words, are the Albanians really the indigenous people of the Balkans as they claim or just newcomers to their present-day ethnic territories?  It is true, however, that the question of the Illyrian ethnic and cultural background of present-day Albanians ...
READ MORE
Is Slavery Still Exist?
A good tradition of the British and the West European colonialismOrigins of images: Facebook, Twitter, Wikimedia, Wikipedia, Flickr, Google, Imageinjection, Public Domain & Pinterest.Join the debate on our Twitter feed: @OvsishteRead our Disclaimer/Legal Statement!Donate to Support UsWe would like to ask you to consider a small donation to help our team keep working. We accept no advertising and rely only on you, our readers, to keep us digging the truth on history, global politics and international relations.[wpedon id="4696" align="left"]Belgian Congo
READ MORE
Untold History of Lithuania: A Chicago Teacher Showed Her Grandfather was a Nazi Collaborator
Barring unexpected delays, Silvia Foti is months away from fulfilling an old promise that’s become her life’s work: to write a biography of her late grandfather, who is a national hero in his native Lithuania. Foti, a 60-year-old high school teacher from Chicago, made the pledge to her dying mother 18 years ago. She has spent a long time studying the life of her grandfather, Jonas Noreika, as well as acquiring the writing skills necessary for chronicling it and finding a publisher. But rather than celebrating Noreika’s legacy as her mother requested, the biography that Foti wrote confirms and amplifies the findings ...
READ MORE
Kosovo Albanian Jihadists Planned to Attack Venice’s Rialto Bridge
Italian police broke up an alleged jihadist cell in Venice who had celebrated last week’s terrorist attack in London and planned to blow up the city’s famous Rialto Bridge in the hope of killing hundreds of tourists. In a series of overnight raids, anti-terrorism police arrested three suspects, all of them Kosovars who were living in Italy. Fisnik Bekaj, 24, Dake Haziraj, 25, and Arian Babaj, 27, were allegedly admirers of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) and were secretly recorded discussing how they were ready to die for the sake of jihad. A fourth person, an unnamed minor ...
READ MORE
The United States and the “Russian Devil”: 1917-2017
Conservatives have had a very hard time getting over President Trump’s much-repeated response to Fox News anchor Bill O’Reilly’s calling Russian president Vladimir Putin “a killer”. Replied Trump: “There are a lot of killers. We have a lot of killers. You think our country is so innocent?” One could almost feel a bit sorry for O’Reilly as he struggled to regain his composure in the face of such blasphemy. Had any American establishment media star ever heard such a thought coming from the mouth of an American president? From someone on the radical left, yes, but from the president? Senator John McCain on the ...
READ MORE
Why the Rise of Fascism is Again the Issue
Install “Madam President”
Western Christianity and its Traditional Discrimination In Favour of the Right Wing Politics
Kosovo’s Conflict: A Devastating Precedent in International Relations
Why the West cannot Stomach Russians
A Government of Morons and War Criminals
100th Anniversary of the Pontic Genocide
70 Years of Disinformation: How the CIA Funded Opinion Magazines in Europe
Deconstructing Russophobia
The Lost Journalistic Standards of Russia-gate
Iran vs America: History’s Scars
Kosovo and Crimea: What’s the Difference?
German Intelligence Service had Mafia Dossier on Kosovan President since 2005
The Macedonian Name Deal Threatens to Erase European Identity
Pope Francis at Auschwitz but not at Jasenovac Slaughterhouse in Catholic Croatia
The Albanian Origin: The Main Challenges of Research
Is Slavery Still Exist?
Untold History of Lithuania: A Chicago Teacher Showed Her Grandfather was a Nazi Collaborator
Kosovo Albanian Jihadists Planned to Attack Venice’s Rialto Bridge
The United States and the “Russian Devil”: 1917-2017

Written by Policraticus

SHORT LEGAL DISCLAIMER: The website’s owner & editor-in-chief has no official position on any issue published at this website. The views of the authors presented at this website do not necessarily coincide with the opinion of the owner & editor-in-chief of the website. The contents of all material (articles, books, photos, videos…) are of sole responsibility of the authors. The owner & editor-in-chief of this website is not morally, scientifically or legally responsible for any inaccurate or incorrect statement in the contents of all material found on this website. The owner & editor-in-chief of this website is not responsible for the content of external internet sites. No advertising, government or corporate funding for the functioning of this website. The owner & editor-in-chief and authors are not morally, scientifically or legally responsible for any inaccurate or incorrect statement in the text and material found on the website www.global-politics.eu

Website: http://www.global-politics.eu