Armenians and others around the world this month are marking the centennial of the genocide that left hundreds of thousands of Armenians dead early in the last century. The date April 24 is typically picked as the centennial day since it was on that day in 1915 that Turkish authorities rounded up Armenian intellectuals and leaders in Constantinople and murdered them.
It was the first step in a much broader slaughter. The Armenian centennial is getting the attention it deserves from sources as diverse as Pope Francis and Kim Kardashian. The Pope courageously used the word “genocide” in a mass this past weekend, and the Lord’s Prayer was sung in Armenian at the Vatican. Kim Kardashian, whose grandfather was an Armenian immigrant, traveled to the Republic of Armenia with her husband Kayne West, who put on an impromptu concert.
These events are good and an important.
What few people know is that the Armenian Genocide was a horrible event that occurred within the context of a wider religious cleansing across Asia Minor that lasted ten years and included Armenians, Greeks and Assyrians. They were all Christians, and they were subjects of the Ottoman Empire.
The religious cleansing was actually the first in modern times, and it fit the pattern of genocides that would follow in the terrible century ahead. It’s worth noting that the Nazis in following decades were transfixed by the events that had occurred in Turkey in those nightmarish years of mass killings and deadly deportations.
The Armenians in many way bore the worst of the slaughter, but ethnic Greeks and Assyrians also were slaughtered in similar ways — and for the same reason: They were scapegoats in a crumbling empire that saw Christians as a dangerous and potentially treasonous population inside the country. There was a strong nationalistic impulse to create a “Turkey for the Turks,” and that meant a homogeneous population based on Turkishness and the Moslem faith.
Christians had long been second-class citizens in the Ottoman Empire, long before the genocide, and they had been subject to pogrom-like actions. But the systematic uprooting of Christians began about 1912 following the First Balkan War, in which Greece, Serbia and Bulgaria defeated the Ottomans and the city of Salonika passed to the Greeks.
It was the nation of Greece that had been part of the alliance that defeated the Ottomans, but it was ethnic Greek subjects of the Ottoman Empire who paid a price in harassment, killing and forced departures. Tens of thousands of ethnic Greeks were forced from their homes along the west (Aegean) coast of Turkey and many were killed.
This had the silent encouragement of Turkey’s military ally, Germany. Virulent propaganda spread images of Christians threatening Islam; hatred was fomented between the faiths.One of the witnesses to the killing was the American consul general in Smyrna, George Horton. Smyrna was a prosperous city on the Aegean, and Horton had been posted there to look after American interests. He documented the killing and reported it back to the State Department. Smyrna itself, after WWI, would itself be destroyed in the religious hatred directed toward Christians.
The Armenian genocide is typically bracketed by 1915-1916, during World War I. And for sure, this is when most of the killing took place. Armenian civilians were marched out of their towns and cities and segregated by sex and age. Men were killed immediately; women and children were marched long distances until they dropped form disease, thirst or starvation. The first-hand accounts of these treks are numerous and collected in letters, cables and reports in libraries though the world.
After WWI, the British made an attempt to bring the Ottoman mass killers to justice, but the effort faltered as Britain’s grasp on the situation inside Turkey faltered. A nationalist movement arose, and the forces of religious hatred were again unleashed. The killing of Christians was renewed with Ottoman Greeks as well as Armenians being shot and marched to their deaths. American and British consuls diplomats in the region provided a first-hand account of the killing.
The situation was worsened when the Allied Powers and the United States invited the nation of Greece to occupy Smyrna, a mostly Greek city inside Turkey, to forestall a landing by the Italians who wanted to seize the city as the spoils of war. The powers sent Greece to Smyrna, but when war broke out between the army of Greece and the Nationalist army of Turkey, they did next to nothing to support it.
As a consequence, more Christians — people who were Ottoman subjects — were murdered in towns and cities from the Black Sea to the south coast of Turkey. By the end of 1922, about three millions Christians had been killed in the decade-long religious cleansing that operated essentially under two Turkish governments.
The final catastrophe was the Turkish army’s occupation of Smyrna, a prosperous and cosmopolitan city of a half million people. The city was burned, and countless numbers of civilians slaughtered on the city’s streets and in their homes. The occupation of Smyrna was, in an important sense, the last episode of the genocide. It was also a marker of the end of the Ottoman Empire. After Smyrna, a new order arose, led by Turkey’s brilliant, ruthless and secular leader Mustafa Kemal, later called Ataturk.
So, as we commemorate the Armenian genocide, and give it the historical standing and label it deserves, let us not forget that many hundreds of thousands of others perished in the 20th Century’s first genocide.
Originally published on 2015-04-18
About the author: Lou Ureneck is a professor at Boston University and author of the forthcoming book, “The Great Fire: One American’s Mission to Rescue Victims of the 20th Century’s First Genocide.” It can now be pre-ordered here.
Source: Pappas Post
Read our Disclaimer/Legal Statement!
Donate to Support Us
We would like to ask you to consider a small donation to help our team keep working. We accept no advertising and rely only on you, our readers, to keep us digging the truth on history, global politics and international relations.
The anti Serbian hysteria, ignorance, corrupted officials, media and public is something the British have to take consequences for. The consequences are: blooming criminal, narco business, robberies, theft, prostitution, kidnappings, radicalism, terrorism and other criminal officially supported (and) by Great Britain activities. But only while on Serbian soil. The Serbs were not allowed to defend their state form the criminals; there were NATO bombs to support Neonazi regime(s) in Croatia, radical Islamists in Bosnia and Islamofascists Albanian quasi state Kosovo, built on drug trade, prostitution and Serbian harvested organs.
Since Albanians were not happy with ‘Kosovo’ state anymore, and after they ...
The West has a black history in the middle east that must be recognised. In 1916, Arabs joined the allied forces but deceived.The victorious western powers divided the region as they wished without any consideration to the peoples’ will. Then completed this crime by planting the state of Israel, which since day one spread state terrorism throughout the region.The West supported Israel and defied the international law set by the West. Our part of the world continued to live in a climate of war, militarisation and tension because of this. In this respect, the West practised and still the most ...
Years ago, the terms “false flag” and “conspiracy theory” went hand in hand. Suggesting that a government would stage an attack on its own people or attack an ally and blame it on a “third party” was unthinkable.
This is despite the glaring fact that “false flags” have been going on since before biblical times and have been a part of every nation’s policy. Intelligence agencies exist to do little else, they plan and execute false flag attacks to influence policy and set the course of events, based on analysis. This is, in fact, their greatest single tool, and one used ...
Islamic forces entered Europe from Asia and North Africa in order to enslave, convert, persecute and either completely destroy Christianity or to enforce dhimmitude. Before this process began you had the complete annihilation of Christianity in many parts of North Africa and in various parts of the Middle East it was one long sojourn into dhimmitude, pogroms and massacres.
Christianity survived in some areas, for example in Egypt, however, numbers succumbed after Arab colonial and Islamic discrimination took route. Therefore, a complete Islamic inquisition took root in Arabia (modern day Saudi Arabia) and just like the Sunni Islamic inquisition against Buddhism ...
These are awesome days for headline writers. So many global settings, such an abundance of weapons, such a wealth of choices!
On the morning of April 14, the New York Times led with “A Giant U.S. Bomb Strikes ISIS Caves in Afghanistan,” matched by CNN’s “US Drops ‘Mother of All Bombs.’” The Washington Post chose Syria, where “Errant U.S. Strike Kills 18: Victims in Syria Were Allied Forces.” By mid-afternoon that same day, the Associated Press had shifted to the horn of Africa, where the “U.S. Sends Dozens of Troops to Somalia, 1st Time in Decades.”
And as the Friday rush hour ...
Our Planet Earth is heading straight towards the most dangerous collision in its history. It is not a collision with some foreign body, with an asteroid or a comet, but with the most brutal and selfish chunk of its own inhabitants: with people who proudly call themselves “members of the Western civilization.”
Again and again it is clearly demonstrated that Western culture, which the paramount psychologist Carl Jung used to call “pathology”, couldn’t be trusted.
This “culture” had already mercilessly slaughtered several hundreds of millions of people in all corners of the world; it enslaved entire continents, and plundered all that had ...
If you reside in a parallel universe then welcome to Kosovo, the land of Albanianization and Islamization and all in the name of democracy. A flick back into history tells us that the Serbs were 98% of the population of Kosovo 600 years ago but today the Orthodox Christian Serbs are between 6% and 8% depending on various figures.
Of course, the Kosovo Serbs became a minority because of the ravages of the Ottoman Empire, dhimmitude, Islamization, and Albanian support of fascism during the German Nazi period. Communism in the old Yugoslavia was the final nail in the coffin because Albanian long-term objectives ...
(JTA) — A Lithuanian judge postponed a precedent-setting trial in which a U.S. citizen is demanding that a state museum end its glorification of a deceased Nazi collaborator.Jonas Noreika - "General Storm"The case is thought to be the first in which civil servants intend to publicly defend in court the actions and good name of an alleged collaborator. Lawyers representing the museum said they needed more time to review materials relevant to the case, which involves the late Jonas Noreika. The postponement was announced Tuesday in Vilnius.The state-funded museum, known as the Center for the Study of the Genocide and Resistance of the ...
During the Albanian Muslim secessionist and separatist war in the Serbian province of Kosovo and Metohija, Kosovo Serb civilians were targeted for murder and expulsion. December 14, 2010 marked the 12th year anniversary of the mass murders of six Kosovo Serbs in 1998 by Kosovo Albanian secessionists and separatists. The cold-blooded murder of the six youths was a horrific and shocking mass murder. The killers were Albanian Muslim separatists, suspected members of the KLA, which U.S. special envoy to the Balkans Robert Gelbard described in 1998 as “without any question, a terrorist group”: “I know a terrorist when I see ...
Back in February, we warned about the prospect of Israel selling F-16s to Croatia, a state in which WWII revisionism and Holocaust denial are running rampant, and memories of the Nazi puppet Independent State of Croatia are routinely glorified. In the meantime, that has become a done deal. But there is more. Not only will Israel sell half a billion dollars worth of fighter jets to Croatia, but on August 5, three Israeli F-16s, crewed by Israeli pilots, took part in a parade to celebrate the 23rd anniversary of the “Operation Storm,” in which more than 2,300 Serbs were killed, including more than 1,200 civilians, among which more ...
Columbus made four voyages to the New World.  The initial voyage reveals several important things about the man. First, he had genuine courage because few ship’s captains had ever pointed their prow toward the open ocean, the complete unknown. Secondly, from numerous of his letters and reports we learn that his overarching goal was to seize wealth that belonged to others, even his own men, by whatever means necessary.
Columbus’s Spanish royal sponsors (Ferdinand and Isabella) had promised a lifetime pension to the first man who sighted land. A few hours after midnight on October 12, 1492, Juan Rodriguez Bermeo, ...
Accused of War Crimes: The British Prime Minister Tony Blair
WAR CRIMES CHARGES FOR THE HAGUE AGAINST THE NATO LEADERS – ONE OF THE INDICTMENTS IN THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL TRIBUNAL FOR THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA
NOTICE OF THE EXISTENCE OF INFORMATION CONCERNING SERIOUS VIOLATIONS OF INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW WITHIN THE JURISDICTION OF THE TRIBUNAL;
REQUEST THAT THE PROSECUTOR INVESTIGATE NAMED INDIVIDUALS FOR VIOLATIONS OF INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW AND PREPARE INDICTMENTS AGAINST THEM PURSUANT TO ARTICLES 18.1 AND 18.4 OF THE TRIBUNAL STATUTE.
Madam Justice Louise Arbour, Prosecutor, International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, Churchillplein 1, 2501 EW, The Hague, Netherlands.
President William J. ...
Perhaps no country on Earth is more misunderstood by Americans than North Korea. Though the country's leaders are typically portrayed as buffoonish, even silly, in fact they are deadly serious in their cruelty and skill at retaining power. Though the country is seen as Soviet-style communist, in fact it is better understood as a holdover of Japanese fascism.
And there is another misconception, one that Americans might not want to hear but that is important for understanding the hermit kingdom: Yes, much of its anti-Americanism is cynically manufactured as a propaganda tool, and yes, it is often based on lies. But ...
Last week was marked by the moral acrobatics of two Croatian ministers – War Veterans’ Minister Tomo Medved and Defence Minister Damir Krsticevic – who publicly endorsed two convicted Croatian war criminals, Tomislav Mercep and Mirko Norac.
A WWII Independent State of Croatia in which 700.000 Serbs were brutally killed
Croatian news site Index reported last week that Mercep, who is serving a prison sentence, spent a total of 45 days at a spa instead of in jail this year and last year. As Mercep is a Croatian war veteran, Medved said he vouched for him as worthy recipient of the spa ...
After the catastrophic attacks of September 11 2001 monumental sorrow and a feeling of desperate and understandable anger began to permeate the American psyche. A few people at that time attempted to promote a balanced perspective by pointing out that the United States had also been responsible for causing those same feelings in people in other nations, but they produced hardly a ripple. Although Americans understand in the abstract the wisdom of people around the world empathizing with the suffering of one another, such a reminder of wrongs committed by our nation got little hearing and was soon overshadowed by ...
North from Nazareth’s city limits, a mile or so as the crow flies, is an agricultural community by the name of Tzipori – Hebrew for “bird.” It is a place I visit regularly, often alongside groups of activists wanting to learn more about the political situation of the Palestinian minority living in Israel.
Tzipori helps to shed light on the core historic, legal and administrative principles underpinning a Jewish state, ones that reveal it to be firmly in a tradition of non-democratic political systems that can best be described as apartheid in nature.
More than a decade ago, former U.S. president Jimmy ...
Veterans Day has passed. The annual ritual never changes. Politicians who didn’t serve in the armed services start unnecessary wars, killing military personnel whose sacrifices are then lauded. Officials say these heroes died defending our freedom. That is almost always a lie.Sometimes Washington must go to war. Not often, however. Despite the endless claims that we live in a dangerous world, America is amazingly safe. No other power could defeat, let alone conquer, the United States. Only Russia has a comparable nuclear arsenal, but it would be destroyed if Moscow targeted America. China and Russia trail U.S. conventional military strength ...
The cold-blooded killing of the journalist Khashoggi, however gruesome, pales compared to the brutality and gross human rights violations Saudi Arabia is committing in Yemen. The Saudis are deliberately preventing food and medicine from reaching areas where children are dying from starvation or disease. Their indiscriminate bombings are killing thousands of innocent men, women, and children, leaving whole communities in ruin. The saddest part of this unfolding tragedy is that the US and other Western powers are supplying the Saudis with the weapons they need to massacre the Yemenites, who are trapped in this proxy war between Saudi Arabia and ...
The article will examine the model for the creation of a Greater Croatia designed by a Croatian nobleman, publicist and historian Pavao Ritter Vitezović (1652–1713). The article will offer a new interpretation of the substance and significance of Vitezović’s political ideology. Many historians have viewed Vitezović’s political thought and his developed ideological framework of a united South Slavic state as part of a wider pan-Slavic world. According to the prevailing notion, Vitezović was a precursor of the idea of Yugoslavism (a united South Slavic nation-state) and even Pan-Slavism - a pan-Slavic cultural and political reciprocity. Yet a closer look at ...
History is in many ways a myth we create for ourselves. History is constantly falsified to justify wars and territorial claims. Albanian apologists have falsified the role Albania played in the Holocaust to justify an illegal US/NATO war against Serbia and to allow for the creation of a Greater Albania that would include the Serbian province of Kosovo-Metohija.The Jewish victims of the Holocaust in Albania are estimated at 591 from 1941 to 1944, when a Greater Albania was sponsored by Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini. There were 33 known families of Albanian Jews living in pre-war Albania. The largest Jewish ...
Albanian Organized Crime in UK and Mainstream Media
Confronting the West With its Responsibilities is Essential!
USA: False Flags and Fake Reality
Western Policy Doing the Bidding of Islam in Kosovo: Destroying Orthodox Christianity
There is no Strategy Behind Trump’s War, Just Brute Force
Ignorance and Indoctrination of Westerners Kills Millions
Orthodox Christian Ghettoization and Anti-Serb Clampdown in Kosovo
Lithuanian Judge Postpones Trial over Reputation of Deceased Nazi Collaborator
Mass Murders of Serbs in Kosovo Town of Pec in 1998
Israel Stamps Approval on Europe’s Largest Post-WWII Ethnic Cleansing
War Crimes Charges for the Hague Tribunal Against NATO Leaders
Americans have Forgotten What We did to North Korea
Croatian Ministers Salute Criminals and Dishonour the Dead
US has Killed More than 20 Million People in 37 “Victim Nations” since World War II
Endless War is no Honor to America’s Veterans
The Saudi Butchery in Yemen and the World’s Apathy
The Idea of a Greater Croatia by Pavao Ritter Vitezović (I)
Falsifying History: The Holocaust and Greater Albania