Global Politics

Global Security, the United Nations Organization and the Role of the Security Council

Hits: 350

Historical background

After the failure of the interwar League of Nations to prevent international crises and military conflicts of the 1930s which finally culminated in the next global war, the major Allied states (the USA, the USA, the UK, and China) agreed in Moscow in October 1943 to create a new, more functional, and improved international peace-keeping organization after the war under a new name of the United Nations Organization (the UNO). In other words, the UNO has evolved from a wining coalition of countries fighting against European Nazism and fascism in WWII. Following further negotiations at Dumbarton Oaks and Yalta, the charter of the UNO was discussed and drafted in San Francisco in spring 1945 and signed as an international treaty called the United Nations Charter on June 26th, 1945 in San Francisco (California, the USA). There was at that time an idea that it is necessary to create an international environment, in which states will avoid armed conflicts and will resolve political disputes by diplomatic means but not by the force.

The UNO was officially established on October 24th, 1945, when the UNO’s Charter came into force. Originally, the UNO was established by 51 nations (states). Its task was to replace the League of Nations, which had the same aim but failed to prevent WWII. The UNO gradually accepted the other Member States, but enlargement was hampered by the beginning of the Cold War. That is the reason why a large increase in the number of the Member States was registered since the late fifties and then after the dissolution of the USSR and the destruction of ex-Yugoslavia when the new states emerged and for whom the UNO’s membership was final proof of the global recognition of their formal political independence. Some of the quasi-states are still on the waiting list for the UNO’s membership like, for instance, Kosovo.

The administration of the UNO is headed by a Secretary-General, among whom was, for instance, the Austrian Kurt Waldheim (the fourth Secretary-General from 1972 to 1981) – a Nazi Wehrmacht’s officer whose military unit was accused of the war crimes against Serbian civilians in North Montenegro (the district of Pljevlja) during WWII.

The UNO and its activities

The UNO is an international organization whose aim is to maintain international peace and security and ensure international cooperation. Since 2011, the UNO has 193 Member States. The last member joined the UNO on July 14th, 2011 was South Sudan. The UNO’s membership is based on the principle of sovereign equality. The Member States have got their representation called “permanent missions” at the UNO’s Headquarters in New York (the USE) but also in Geneva (Switzerland) or Vienna (Austria). The membership in the UNO is open to all countries based on the conditions laid down in the UNO’s Charter. Each potential Member State must declare that it is committed and able to meet the required obligations of the membership.

The United Nations Organization has been repeatedly awarded by the Nobel Peace Prize (however, like Barack Obama, for instance, probably for the constant bombing of the Middle East and North Africa?). The first was awarded for the work of the UNO’s High Commissioner for Refugees in 1954 (received the award again in 1981), followed by the UNO’s Children’s Fund in 1965, the International Labour Organisation in 1969, the UNO’s and Kofi Annan as the Secretary-General in 2001, and 2007 this recognition was given to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change which was also founded by the UNO.

The UNO has a broad field of endeavor as the only global organization covers the activities practically in all sectors of universal security and peace-keeping.

The declarative areas of its activity can be summarized into five fundamental categories:

1) Protection of international peace and security:

The UNO was originally established exactly for this purpose and, therefore, is why this area of activities is the most important for the organization. More precisely, it includes conflict prevention, peace-keeping, and if the conflict occurs the organization tries to peacefully solve it and after that to protect the peace. If necessary, the UNO’s peacekeepers are deployed on the blue line which separates the conflicting actors (example: Cyprus after 1974).

2) Promotion of economic and social development.

The UNO wants to improve the lives of people everywhere. To achieve this task it tries to support prosperity and economic opportunity, greater social well-being, and protection of the environment.

3) Protection of human rights.

In this matter, a key role has got the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which was issued in 1948 and brought human rights in the sphere of international law. Probably the most important news in this area is to support the principle of “responsibility to protect” (RTP) by UNO’s the Member States but only with the UNOSC’s permission. The concept called “Humanitarian intervention”, as well as only under the UNOSC’s permission should provide the ability to respond effectively to genocide, ethnic cleansing, and other gross and massive violations of human or/and minority rights.

4) Humanitarian activities.

The UNO helps in all cases where the consequences of a natural or man-made disaster exceed the ability of affected countries to respond effectively. Nowadays, the United Nations Organization is (or it should be) the focal provider of emergency and long-term assistance, to initiate an action of Governments and humanitarian organizations and to defend the interests of disabled people.

5) Upholding international law.

The UNO’s Charter in its Preamble set an objective to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained. This activity can be implemented by courts, tribunals, multilateral treaties. There is also one body – the Security Council, which can accept peacekeeping missions, impose sanctions, or permit the use of force when there is a threat to international peace and security. However, and unfortunately, in many cases, the use of force on the international scene was not formally permitted by the UNOSC as it was the case, for instance, with the NATO’s military intervention against Serbia and Montenegro in 1999, i.e., in fact, with the NATO’s military aggression on the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.  

The role of the Security Council

The Security Council (the UNOSC) bears (under the UNO’s Charter) responsibility for maintaining international peace and security. It has 15 members, including five permanent – China (Taiwan until 1971, then the People’s Republic), France, USSR/Russia, the USA, and Great Britain – and ten non-permanent (temporary), which are elected by the UNO’s General Assembly for two-year periods. Each member of the UNOSC has one vote. To approve the decisions in ordinary matters are required at least nine votes from fifteen. However, to accept decisions on fundamental issues is needed nine votes plus the approval of all five Permanent Members with the veto right. This rule called “powers unanimity” often refers to the veto. If one of the Permanent Members disagrees with a draft decision, it can vote against the proposal and reject it by the use of the veto right. If a Permanent Member does not agree with the proposed resolutions or decisions but does not exercise the veto right, it may abstain (a restrained voice). In such a case, the resolution can be taken up with a minimum of nine votes.

As a result of the veto right, for example, the UNOSC was relatively ineffective during the Cold War, when unanimity was difficult to establish between the USA and the USSR. As a matter of example, the UNO could only intervene in the Korean War because of a temporary Soviet boycott of the UNOSC which made it impossible for the USSR to exercise the veto. On the other hand, it is known how many veto rights used the USA in the UNOSC in the favour of Israel in its dealing with the Palestinian question in the Middle East.

According to Article 25 of the UNO’s Charter, all Member States agree that they will respect and fulfill decisions of the UNOSC. While other UNO’s bodies give recommendations to the Governments, the UNOSC takes decisions which are for the Member States legally binding. This is the very reason why the role of the UNOSC is in the practice of extreme importance. In other words, if the state fails to comply with the decision of the UNOSC the latter is eligible to force the same state (i.e., its Government) to abide by its provisions. On one hand, the coercive measures can faster help to resolve the conflict but on the other hand, it would have a large negative impact on the state’s population. Therefore, the UNSC should have very carefully considered the use of any coercive measure taking into account its possible negative impact on the civilian population. The use of military intervention as well as the suspension of economic activities (import/export) or cash flow will suffer mainly the economy of the state and its citizens. Nevertheless, the UNOSC possesses the possibility to decide which coercive measure should be used – either different kinds of sanctions or classic military intervention.

In the case that the UNOSC decides to use the sanctions, no military force has to be used. The sanctions are measures which can include complete or partial interruption of economic and trade contacts, the severance of diplomatic negotiations, to impose an arms embargo, suspension of financial flow into the country, travel bans, a ban on the export and import of luxury goods, etc. Such sanctions have been in previous years imposed for the former Yugoslavia, Rwanda, Afghanistan, Ethiopia, or Eritrea.

The military action can be undertaken only if diplomatic negotiations, embargoes, and sanctions fail. However, legitimate military action should be only in extreme and emergency cases. After formally ending the conflict, the UNO tries to help states with economic, political, economic, and social reconstruction. Nevertheless, the use of force is clearly defined in the UNO’s Charter what NATO in 1999 overpassed by the means of classic gangsters in international relations.

As it is already mentioned above, the focal task of the UNOSC is to preserve international peace and security. In order to successfully preserve the peace, it is required effort to participate in the settling conflict by all the warring parties. It also requires, however, efforts from neighboring, foreign countries, and other international organizations to participate in the process. There must be also provided sufficient financial and human resources for such activity. The great merit of the restoration and maintenance of international peace has to have UNO’s peacekeeping missions which in many cases failed to fulfill their duties like on the territory of ex-Yugoslavia in the 1990s.

The UNO’s peacekeeping missions have to constitute one of the most important means for ensuring international peace and security. The deployment of peacekeeping missions is decided by the UNOSC. However, the countries in which peacekeeping missions should be deployed must agree with it, otherwise, it cannot go on. Peacekeeping missions are directed by the Secretary-General or his authorized representative. The UNO’s peacekeeping missions have to work closely with the regional organizations.

As a matter of fact, the UNO does not have its own military forces and equipment. It is provided on voluntary basis decisions by the UNO’s Member States. In peacekeeping missions can participate soldiers, police, and civilians from various countries. Peacekeeping missions are financed from a special budget for peacekeeping missions, which is formed from the financial contributions by individual Member States (but not on an equal basis). Funds from the special budget are by the predetermined conditions distributed among the Member States, which provided the UNO’s military equipment. In the context of peacekeeping operations, the military observers, who are unarmed, can act with the right only to supervise compliance with the peace. Nonetheless, there are also the UNO’s military units that are indeed armed but only for their self-defense.

According to the UNO’s Information Centre in Prague, from 1948 to 2005 it was a total of 60 peacekeeping operations, which was attended by more than 81,000 military observers and members of the military units. A total UNO’s spent on the peacekeeping operations in 2005 is estimated at 36 billion USD. In recent years, there is a need to figure out the issue of how is to better organize peacekeeping missions for the sake to be more flexible, readier, and quicker, to have secured political and financial support, and to have more powers on the ground.

Conclusion

To understand the UNO, its functioning and the real impact on global affairs and security is of particular significance to understand firstly what this organization is not. In other words, the UNO is not a global domination institution, the Secretary-General is not the President or the Chairman of a Global Government. The UNO does not seek such a role and is not able to pursue such a role. The UNO is no substitute for the sovereignty of the nation-states. The UNO, therefore, cannot replace or completely cure the current international system based on the coexistence of independent and sovereign states.

However, the UNO is rather a mirror of the contemporary world in which national interests still prevail over common interests. However, some issues and problems are common to all and require common solutions. From poverty, AIDS, water scarcity, despite a changing climate, drugs, COVID-19 to migration – these are all issues that do not recognize national boundaries, and which require international cooperation. Without the UNO’s structures and its Security Council as the main security body responsible for maintaining international peace, such cooperation is very difficult.


Dr. Vladislav B. Sotirović

www.global-politics.eu/sotirovic

sotirovic@global-politics.eu

© Vladislav B. Sotirović 2020

Origins of images: Facebook, Twitter, Wikimedia, Wikipedia, Flickr, Google, Imageinjection, Public Domain & Pinterest.

Read our Disclaimer/Legal Statement!

Donate to Support Us

We would like to ask you to consider a small donation to help our team keep working. We accept no advertising and rely only on you, our readers, to keep us digging the truth on history, global politics, and international relations.

[wpedon id=”4696″ align=”left”]

READ MORE!
Modern-Day Croatia is a Carbon Copy of WWII Nazi-Monstrous Independent State of Croatia
Ante Pavelic - a leader of the Independent State of Croatia with the Roman Catholic clergy Scattered over almost two centuries across the globe – in Germany, the US, Canada, Argentina and Australia – most members of the Croatian diaspora are still closely linked to their homeland.The Croatian state responds in kind; it pledges to take “special care” of Croats living abroad, a pledge outlined in the country’s 1990 constitution. Subsequently, Croatia has set up the Central State Office for Croats Abroad, as well as a government body, the Council for Croats Abroad.More controversially, some in the diaspora maintain close ...
READ MORE
Five Facts about Kosovo the #Fakenews Media is Lying to You about
1. Kosovo is not ancient Albanian landIts very name comes from the Serbian word “kos,” meaning blackbird. Its Albanian name, “Kosova,” means nothing whatsoever.Kosovo was the heartland of medieval Serbian state and the site of the 1389 battle in which both the Serbian prince and the Ottoman sultan died, checking the Turkish expansion into the Balkans for almost 70 years. Ethnic Albanians were settled there by the Ottomans over the intervening centuries, and became a majority due to pogroms and persecution of Serbs – which began under Ottoman rule but continued under Austro-Hungarian occupation in WWI and German/Italian occupation in ...
READ MORE
Saudi Arab Islamist beheading Serbs in Bosnia in 1992
The conflict that raged throughout the former Yugoslavia was met by a wall of silence when it came to important issues. These important issues apply to America and the United Kingdom supporting Islamists in a brutal civil war in Bosnia and then installing a new nation by ignoring international law in Kosovo. Also, is it credible to believe that the vast majority of major news agencies and national governments did not know about thousands of Islamists in Europe who were sent to slit the throats and behead Orthodox Christians? After all, if the reality of what really happened in Bosnia and ...
READ MORE
The Korean War and Crimes against Humanity
“ON JANUARY 3 [1951] AT 10:30 AM, AN ARMADE OF 82 FLYING FORTRESSES LOOSED THEIR DEATH-DEALING LOAD ON THE CITY OF PYONGYANG. … “THE NUMBER OF INHABITANTS OF PYONGYANG KILLED BY BOMB SPLINTERS, BURNT ALIVE AND SUFFOCATED BY SMOKE IS INCALCULABLE, SINCE NO COMPUTATION IS POSSIBLE. SOME FIFTY THOUSAND INHABITANTS REMAIN IN THE CITY, WHICH BEFORE THE WAR HAD A POPULATION OF FIVE HUNDRED THOUSAND.” [UN Repository]With tension ever mounting in the Korean peninsular, all the higher every year with US bombers conducting annual drills over South Korea within direct strike range of North Korea, it is notable and deeply regrettable the West has lost all ...
READ MORE
Trump is Advised by Liars, Like Bush Was
As will be shown here, the U.S. federal government, under President Donald Trump, is repeating the very same deception of the public, in regard to Syria’s Bashar al-Assad, that it had perpetrated back in 2002, against Iraq’s Saddam Hussein, under U.S. President George W. Bush. (By contrast, and for secret reasons, the U.S. federal government does everything possible to downplay the barbarisms, such as are occurring in Yemen, that are perpetrated by the fundamentalist Sunni Kings of Saudi Arabia, and Emirs of Qatar, even while exaggerating the barbarisms by the fundamentalist Shiite clerics who control Iran — a key ally ...
READ MORE
The NYT’s Yellow Journalism on Russia
Reading The New York Times these days is like getting a daily dose of the “Two Minutes Hate” as envisioned in George Orwell’s 1984, except applied to America’s new/old enemy Russia. Even routine international behavior, such as Russia using fictitious names for potential adversaries during a military drill, is transformed into something weird and evil. In the snide and alarmist style that the Times now always applies to Russia, reporter Andrew Higgins wrote – referring to a fictitious war-game “enemy” – “The country does not exist, so it has neither an army nor any real citizens, though it has acquired a ...
READ MORE
America’s Secret Planned Conquest of Russia
The U.S. government’s plan to conquer Russia is based upon a belief in, and the fundamental plan to establish, “Nuclear Primacy” against Russia — an American ability to win a nuclear war against, and so conquer, Russia.This concept became respectable in U.S. academic and governmental policymaking circles when virtually simultaneously in 2006 a short-form and a long-form version of an article endorsing the concept, which the article’s two co-authors there named “nuclear primacy,” were published respectively in the world’s two most influential journals of international affairs, Foreign Affairs from the Council on Foreign Relations, and International Security from Harvard. (CFR got the more popular ...
READ MORE
Only Fools and Liars will Blame Assad
So, here's how it is: 1) There is still no evidence - that has been presented to the public - that Assad ordered a chemical weapons (CW) attack. 2) Yes, that evidence should be made public, discussed and debated by Congress, and a vote taken before we use force. I acknowledge that the War Powers Resolution gives the President the authority to use force for 60 days - but the interests of peace and stability are better served through a debate and a democratic process as opposed to a unilateral decision made in secret, especially when the military action is punitive and ...
READ MORE
Finland’s Nazi Past and the SS Martti Ahtisaari
At the time of the illegal NATO bombing of Yugoslavia in 1999 when Martti Ahtisaari was the President of Finland, his government sought to commemorate and to honor Finland’s Nazi SS volunteers from the Holocaust. This offers irrefutable evidence of Ahtisaari’s direct links for support of Nazism and Nazi revisionism. If Ahtisaari had bothered to check the decisions of the Nuremberg War Crimes Tribunals, he would have found that that court held that all Waffen SS troops were war criminals guilty of war crimes and guilty of committing crimes against humanity, namely the mass murder of Jews. Ahtisaari lacks even ...
READ MORE
Donald Trump: We Created Chaos, We Should not have Attacked Serbia!
Donald Trump, influential billionaire and a candidate for the president of United States, back in the 1999, as a guest of the famous host Larry King on CNN, spoke about that time ongoing topic of the bombing of Serbia. Asked by Larry King, what does he think and what would he do if he was in Clinton’s place, Trump criticized the decision to bomb Serbia. “So, I would do something different and I know it will sound ghastly to everybody. But, look at the chaos which we created in Kosovo. I think, we can say that we lost only few people. Of ...
READ MORE
Lietuva Tėvine mūsų!
Origins of images: Facebook, Twitter, Wikimedia, Wikipedia, Flickr, Google, Imageinjection & Pinterest. Read our Disclaimer/Legal Statement! Donate to Support Us We would like to ask you to consider a small donation to help our team keep working. We accept no advertising and rely only on you, our readers, to keep us digging the truth on history, global politics and international relations. [wpedon id="4696" align="left"]
READ MORE
The Destruction of Mosul: U.S. Crimes against Humanity in the Name of “Counterterrorism”
After 267 days, the end of the battle of Mosul was announced on July 10th. “Liberation” is a misleading notion, because the hostilities have not stopped, the human suffering has not stopped.There are still victims in the city every day on both sides.Many refugees have no home to go back to and are suffering from severe mental health problems, especially the children.No reason to celebrateWere inter alia destroyed: 9 of the 10 major hospitals. 76 of the 98 medical centres. 6 big bridges across the Tigris. three-quarters of Mosul’s roads, 400 educational institutions, including schools, universities and education centres. 11,000 ...
READ MORE
China: Rise, Fall and Re-Emergence as a Global Power
The study of world power has been blighted by Eurocentric historians who have distorted and ignored the dominant role China played in the world economy between 1100 and 1800.  John Hobson’s[1] brilliant historical survey of the world economy during this period provides an abundance of empirical data making the case for China ’s economic and technological superiority over Western civilization for the better part of a millennium prior to its conquest and decline in the 19th century. China ’s re-emergence as a world economic power raises important questions about what we can learn from its previous rise and fall and about ...
READ MORE
Tito Disappeared in 1937: Yugoslavia was Led by a Russian Agent – FBI Documents
On April 20, 1955, Marijan John Markul entered the FBI’s Los Angeles office and told a shocking story. The man who then introduced himself as Marshal Josip Broz Tito was not actually him, but a Russian agent who assumed the identity of Tito after Josip Broz disappeared in Russia in 1937. This is stated in the FBI’s report from the beginning of May 1955, writes daily newspaper “Kurir”.Secret FBI reports from the fifties were recently opened and released to the public.Marijan Markul was born in Livno in 1909. He moved to the United States in 1936 and received citizenship in ...
READ MORE
12 Signs America is on the Decline
When it comes to a few key indicators, Ireland, the UK, Canada and even Albania and Greece are surpassing America.America is declining, in large and important measures, yet policymakers aren’t paying attention. So argues a new academic paper, pulling together previously published data.Consider this:America’s child poverty levels are worse than in any developed country anywhere, including Greece, devastated by a euro crisis, and eastern European nations such as Poland, Lithuania and Estonia.Median adult wealth in the US ($39,000) is 27th globally, putting it behind Cyprus, Taiwan, and Ireland.Even when “life satisfaction” is measured, America ranks #12, behind Israel, Sweden and ...
READ MORE
The Media Is Lying to You on Macedonia. US Is Backing an Illegal Coup D’état
Media narrative: Hateful protestors stormed the Macedonian parliament after an ethnic Albanian Talat Xhaferi was elected speaker for the first time. Truth: Protestors stormed the parliament because Xhaferi was declared speaker in an illegal, unconstitutional manner as part of an ongoing coup d'état. It had nothing whatsoever to do with his ethnicity. Even though Xhaferi was "elected" in an irregular manner, the US and EU have already stated they recognize his appointment. This now paves the way for ethnic Albanian parties and the smaller of two main Macedonian parties (Social Democrats) to proclaim a government without the constitutionally required go-ahead from the President of the Republic. The latter has defied ...
READ MORE
War Crimes by British General Sir Michael Jackson
More than forty years later: The 5000 page Saville Commission Report into the 1972 Bloody Sunday massacre in Derry, Northern Ireland, while calling for compensation to the victims’ families, fails to identify who were the perpetrators, both within H.M government and the British Army. “The North’s Public Prosecution Service (PPS) is continuing to scrutinise the Saville report to determine whether there is sufficient evidence to bring charges against British soldiers involved in Bloody Sunday on January 30th, 1972. While progress has been made on the issue of compensation there have been no substantial developments in relation to the possibility of British ...
READ MORE
Documentary Film: “Kosovo: Can You Imagine?” (2009, Canada)
“Kosovo: Can You Imagine?” is a documentary film by Canadian film maker Boris Malagurski, about the Serbs that live in Kosovo and the lack of human rights that they have today, in the 21st century.Most of the Kosovo Serbs have been ethnically cleansed by the Albanians who make up the majority of Kosovo.Kosovo has been under UN administration since 1999 when NATO bombed Serbia for 78 days to halt a crackdown on ethnic Albanian separatism in its province of Kosovo.In the years following the war, thousands of Serbs were expelled from their homes, kidnapped and killed. Their houses, cultural and ...
READ MORE
U.S. Geopolitical Games in Montenegro and Proven Winning Approach by Đukanović
In December last year [2015], NATO officially invited Montenegro to become the 29th member state of the most powerful military organisation of our times, if not, in fact, of all time. The country’s Prime Minister, Milo Đukanović, assured the NATO secretary-general that “you can count on us at any time.” It is always nice to hear that someone has your back. But in Montenegro’s case, it means that they have our back with an entire active-duty military force of only two thousand personnel. It is not quite clear how the tiny nation of less than 700,000 people enhances U.S. security ...
READ MORE
Catalan Independence: 5 Things to Think About
Headlines and commentary across both Eastern and Western media have mainly focused on the Catalan independence referendum and the actions of Spanish police and the Spanish government's attempts to disrupt polls.However, little is being said about what the real implications of Catalan independence may be.  What do those politicians in Catalonia in favor of independence seek to do with it should they succeed? Will they create a Catalonia that serves the best interests of the people? Or serve the EU and NATO more efficiently and eagerly than a united Spain ever could?There are 5 points those following this conflict should ...
READ MORE
Modern-Day Croatia is a Carbon Copy of WWII Nazi-Monstrous Independent State of Croatia
Five Facts about Kosovo the #Fakenews Media is Lying to You about
Bosnia and Kosovo: Radical Islam, Organ Trafficking and Western Mainstream Media Bias
The Korean War and Crimes against Humanity
Trump is Advised by Liars, Like Bush Was
The NYT’s Yellow Journalism on Russia
America’s Secret Planned Conquest of Russia
Only Fools and Liars will Blame Assad
Finland’s Nazi Past and the SS Martti Ahtisaari
Donald Trump: We Created Chaos, We Should not have Attacked Serbia!
Lietuva Tėvine mūsų!
The Destruction of Mosul: U.S. Crimes against Humanity in the Name of “Counterterrorism”
China: Rise, Fall and Re-Emergence as a Global Power
Tito Disappeared in 1937: Yugoslavia was Led by a Russian Agent – FBI Documents
12 Signs America is on the Decline
The Media Is Lying to You on Macedonia. US Is Backing an Illegal Coup D’état
War Crimes by British General Sir Michael Jackson
Documentary Film: “Kosovo: Can You Imagine?” (2009, Canada)
U.S. Geopolitical Games in Montenegro and Proven Winning Approach by Đukanović
Catalan Independence: 5 Things to Think About
FOLLOW US ON OUR SOCIAL PLATFORMS
Share