Global Security, the United Nations Organization and the Role of the Security Council

Share

Hits: 338

Historical background

After the failure of the interwar League of Nations to prevent international crises and military conflicts of the 1930s which finally culminated in the next global war, the major Allied states (the USA, the USA, the UK, and China) agreed in Moscow in October 1943 to create a new, more functional, and improved international peace-keeping organization after the war under a new name of the United Nations Organization (the UNO). In other words, the UNO has evolved from a wining coalition of countries fighting against European Nazism and fascism in WWII. Following further negotiations at Dumbarton Oaks and Yalta, the charter of the UNO was discussed and drafted in San Francisco in spring 1945 and signed as an international treaty called the United Nations Charter on June 26th, 1945 in San Francisco (California, the USA). There was at that time an idea that it is necessary to create an international environment, in which states will avoid armed conflicts and will resolve political disputes by diplomatic means but not by the force.

The UNO was officially established on October 24th, 1945, when the UNO’s Charter came into force. Originally, the UNO was established by 51 nations (states). Its task was to replace the League of Nations, which had the same aim but failed to prevent WWII. The UNO gradually accepted the other Member States, but enlargement was hampered by the beginning of the Cold War. That is the reason why a large increase in the number of the Member States was registered since the late fifties and then after the dissolution of the USSR and the destruction of ex-Yugoslavia when the new states emerged and for whom the UNO’s membership was final proof of the global recognition of their formal political independence. Some of the quasi-states are still on the waiting list for the UNO’s membership like, for instance, Kosovo.

The administration of the UNO is headed by a Secretary-General, among whom was, for instance, the Austrian Kurt Waldheim (the fourth Secretary-General from 1972 to 1981) – a Nazi Wehrmacht’s officer whose military unit was accused of the war crimes against Serbian civilians in North Montenegro (the district of Pljevlja) during WWII.

The UNO and its activities

The UNO is an international organization whose aim is to maintain international peace and security and ensure international cooperation. Since 2011, the UNO has 193 Member States. The last member joined the UNO on July 14th, 2011 was South Sudan. The UNO’s membership is based on the principle of sovereign equality. The Member States have got their representation called “permanent missions” at the UNO’s Headquarters in New York (the USE) but also in Geneva (Switzerland) or Vienna (Austria). The membership in the UNO is open to all countries based on the conditions laid down in the UNO’s Charter. Each potential Member State must declare that it is committed and able to meet the required obligations of the membership.

The United Nations Organization has been repeatedly awarded by the Nobel Peace Prize (however, like Barack Obama, for instance, probably for the constant bombing of the Middle East and North Africa?). The first was awarded for the work of the UNO’s High Commissioner for Refugees in 1954 (received the award again in 1981), followed by the UNO’s Children’s Fund in 1965, the International Labour Organisation in 1969, the UNO’s and Kofi Annan as the Secretary-General in 2001, and 2007 this recognition was given to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change which was also founded by the UNO.

The UNO has a broad field of endeavor as the only global organization covers the activities practically in all sectors of universal security and peace-keeping.

The declarative areas of its activity can be summarized into five fundamental categories:

1) Protection of international peace and security:

The UNO was originally established exactly for this purpose and, therefore, is why this area of activities is the most important for the organization. More precisely, it includes conflict prevention, peace-keeping, and if the conflict occurs the organization tries to peacefully solve it and after that to protect the peace. If necessary, the UNO’s peacekeepers are deployed on the blue line which separates the conflicting actors (example: Cyprus after 1974).

2) Promotion of economic and social development.

The UNO wants to improve the lives of people everywhere. To achieve this task it tries to support prosperity and economic opportunity, greater social well-being, and protection of the environment.

3) Protection of human rights.

In this matter, a key role has got the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which was issued in 1948 and brought human rights in the sphere of international law. Probably the most important news in this area is to support the principle of “responsibility to protect” (RTP) by UNO’s the Member States but only with the UNOSC’s permission. The concept called “Humanitarian intervention”, as well as only under the UNOSC’s permission should provide the ability to respond effectively to genocide, ethnic cleansing, and other gross and massive violations of human or/and minority rights.

4) Humanitarian activities.

The UNO helps in all cases where the consequences of a natural or man-made disaster exceed the ability of affected countries to respond effectively. Nowadays, the United Nations Organization is (or it should be) the focal provider of emergency and long-term assistance, to initiate an action of Governments and humanitarian organizations and to defend the interests of disabled people.

5) Upholding international law.

The UNO’s Charter in its Preamble set an objective to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained. This activity can be implemented by courts, tribunals, multilateral treaties. There is also one body – the Security Council, which can accept peacekeeping missions, impose sanctions, or permit the use of force when there is a threat to international peace and security. However, and unfortunately, in many cases, the use of force on the international scene was not formally permitted by the UNOSC as it was the case, for instance, with the NATO’s military intervention against Serbia and Montenegro in 1999, i.e., in fact, with the NATO’s military aggression on the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.  

The role of the Security Council

The Security Council (the UNOSC) bears (under the UNO’s Charter) responsibility for maintaining international peace and security. It has 15 members, including five permanent – China (Taiwan until 1971, then the People’s Republic), France, USSR/Russia, the USA, and Great Britain – and ten non-permanent (temporary), which are elected by the UNO’s General Assembly for two-year periods. Each member of the UNOSC has one vote. To approve the decisions in ordinary matters are required at least nine votes from fifteen. However, to accept decisions on fundamental issues is needed nine votes plus the approval of all five Permanent Members with the veto right. This rule called “powers unanimity” often refers to the veto. If one of the Permanent Members disagrees with a draft decision, it can vote against the proposal and reject it by the use of the veto right. If a Permanent Member does not agree with the proposed resolutions or decisions but does not exercise the veto right, it may abstain (a restrained voice). In such a case, the resolution can be taken up with a minimum of nine votes.

As a result of the veto right, for example, the UNOSC was relatively ineffective during the Cold War, when unanimity was difficult to establish between the USA and the USSR. As a matter of example, the UNO could only intervene in the Korean War because of a temporary Soviet boycott of the UNOSC which made it impossible for the USSR to exercise the veto. On the other hand, it is known how many veto rights used the USA in the UNOSC in the favour of Israel in its dealing with the Palestinian question in the Middle East.

According to Article 25 of the UNO’s Charter, all Member States agree that they will respect and fulfill decisions of the UNOSC. While other UNO’s bodies give recommendations to the Governments, the UNOSC takes decisions which are for the Member States legally binding. This is the very reason why the role of the UNOSC is in the practice of extreme importance. In other words, if the state fails to comply with the decision of the UNOSC the latter is eligible to force the same state (i.e., its Government) to abide by its provisions. On one hand, the coercive measures can faster help to resolve the conflict but on the other hand, it would have a large negative impact on the state’s population. Therefore, the UNSC should have very carefully considered the use of any coercive measure taking into account its possible negative impact on the civilian population. The use of military intervention as well as the suspension of economic activities (import/export) or cash flow will suffer mainly the economy of the state and its citizens. Nevertheless, the UNOSC possesses the possibility to decide which coercive measure should be used – either different kinds of sanctions or classic military intervention.

In the case that the UNOSC decides to use the sanctions, no military force has to be used. The sanctions are measures which can include complete or partial interruption of economic and trade contacts, the severance of diplomatic negotiations, to impose an arms embargo, suspension of financial flow into the country, travel bans, a ban on the export and import of luxury goods, etc. Such sanctions have been in previous years imposed for the former Yugoslavia, Rwanda, Afghanistan, Ethiopia, or Eritrea.

The military action can be undertaken only if diplomatic negotiations, embargoes, and sanctions fail. However, legitimate military action should be only in extreme and emergency cases. After formally ending the conflict, the UNO tries to help states with economic, political, economic, and social reconstruction. Nevertheless, the use of force is clearly defined in the UNO’s Charter what NATO in 1999 overpassed by the means of classic gangsters in international relations.

As it is already mentioned above, the focal task of the UNOSC is to preserve international peace and security. In order to successfully preserve the peace, it is required effort to participate in the settling conflict by all the warring parties. It also requires, however, efforts from neighboring, foreign countries, and other international organizations to participate in the process. There must be also provided sufficient financial and human resources for such activity. The great merit of the restoration and maintenance of international peace has to have UNO’s peacekeeping missions which in many cases failed to fulfill their duties like on the territory of ex-Yugoslavia in the 1990s.

The UNO’s peacekeeping missions have to constitute one of the most important means for ensuring international peace and security. The deployment of peacekeeping missions is decided by the UNOSC. However, the countries in which peacekeeping missions should be deployed must agree with it, otherwise, it cannot go on. Peacekeeping missions are directed by the Secretary-General or his authorized representative. The UNO’s peacekeeping missions have to work closely with the regional organizations.

As a matter of fact, the UNO does not have its own military forces and equipment. It is provided on voluntary basis decisions by the UNO’s Member States. In peacekeeping missions can participate soldiers, police, and civilians from various countries. Peacekeeping missions are financed from a special budget for peacekeeping missions, which is formed from the financial contributions by individual Member States (but not on an equal basis). Funds from the special budget are by the predetermined conditions distributed among the Member States, which provided the UNO’s military equipment. In the context of peacekeeping operations, the military observers, who are unarmed, can act with the right only to supervise compliance with the peace. Nonetheless, there are also the UNO’s military units that are indeed armed but only for their self-defense.

According to the UNO’s Information Centre in Prague, from 1948 to 2005 it was a total of 60 peacekeeping operations, which was attended by more than 81,000 military observers and members of the military units. A total UNO’s spent on the peacekeeping operations in 2005 is estimated at 36 billion USD. In recent years, there is a need to figure out the issue of how is to better organize peacekeeping missions for the sake to be more flexible, readier, and quicker, to have secured political and financial support, and to have more powers on the ground.

Conclusion

To understand the UNO, its functioning and the real impact on global affairs and security is of particular significance to understand firstly what this organization is not. In other words, the UNO is not a global domination institution, the Secretary-General is not the President or the Chairman of a Global Government. The UNO does not seek such a role and is not able to pursue such a role. The UNO is no substitute for the sovereignty of the nation-states. The UNO, therefore, cannot replace or completely cure the current international system based on the coexistence of independent and sovereign states.

However, the UNO is rather a mirror of the contemporary world in which national interests still prevail over common interests. However, some issues and problems are common to all and require common solutions. From poverty, AIDS, water scarcity, despite a changing climate, drugs, COVID-19 to migration – these are all issues that do not recognize national boundaries, and which require international cooperation. Without the UNO’s structures and its Security Council as the main security body responsible for maintaining international peace, such cooperation is very difficult.


Dr. Vladislav B. Sotirović

www.global-politics.eu/sotirovic

sotirovic@global-politics.eu

© Vladislav B. Sotirović 2020

Origins of images: Facebook, Twitter, Wikimedia, Wikipedia, Flickr, Google, Imageinjection, Public Domain & Pinterest.

Read our Disclaimer/Legal Statement!

Donate to Support Us

We would like to ask you to consider a small donation to help our team keep working. We accept no advertising and rely only on you, our readers, to keep us digging the truth on history, global politics, and international relations.

[wpedon id=”4696″ align=”left”]

READ MORE!
Racism in the United States
If anyone needed another reminder that Black lives simply don’t matter in the United States of America, the police in Minneapolis have clearly demonstrated that fact.It will be a long time before I will forget the picture of Derek Chauvin kneeling on George Floyd’s neck. Even that statement is shocking. I still have not forgotten a very similar picture from 2014: a Black man on the ground being choked by a white policeman. In that earlier time, the victim was Eric Garner. His murderer, Daniel Pantaleo, faced no charges. Chauvin has been charged with third degree murder three days after ...
READ MORE
The Legacy of Slobodan Milosevic
Slobodan Milosevic was faced with an extremely serious and deadly situation in the 1990s. Indeed, that applied to all Serbs at that time in the Balkans, and still does to this very day. Mr Milosevic was up against the West, led by America and followed by the European Union. After realising that the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia could not be saved, Milosevic did everything he could to safeguard the newly created Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and protect Serbs living in Croatia, Bosnia and Kosovo and Metohija. And because of that, the West imposed crippling and merciless sanctions on the ...
READ MORE
‘Trumpism’ is Symptom of Decades-Long Imperial Arrogance
No matter how hard White House officials try, they cannot construct a coherent ‘Trump doctrine’ that would make sense amid the chaos that has afflicted US foreign policy in recent months. However, this chaos is not entirely the making of President Donald Trump alone. Since 1945, the United States has vied for total global leadership. The 1991 dissolution of the Soviet Union, and the subsequent disintegration of the Eastern Bloc, gave it complete global hegemony. The US became the force that stabilized and destabilized any region in the world, as it saw fit – which always served the interests of the US and ...
READ MORE
Kosovo and Metohija – Return to UNSC Resolution 1244
We hear that Kosovo and Metohija’s frozen conflict is not conducive to Serbia’s interests, but nobody notes that Serbia stands to lose even more if negotiations under EU auspices continue under the same pattern and trend. Judging by the ongoing course wherein Serbia has been only delivering concessions and Prishtina’s clique only gaining control over the whole Province, Serbia may end up delivering irrevocably all her rights and interests and receiving nothing in return. Except promises of EU membership by 2027 as “indicative” year! Rarely is heard that such a EU/USA deal “territory (of Kosovo and Metohija) for EU membership” would ...
READ MORE
Is Washington the Most Corrupt Government in History?
Robert Mueller, a former director of the FBI who is working as a special prosecutor “investigating” a contrived hoax designed by the military/security complex and the DNC to destroy the Trump presidency, has yet to produce a scrap of evidence that Russiagate is anything but orchestrated fake news. As William Binney and other top experts have said, if there is evidence of Russiagate, the NSA would have it. No investigation would be necessary. So where is the evidence?It is a revelation of how corrupt Washington is that a fake scandal is being investigated while a real scandal is not. The ...
READ MORE
The United States and the “Russian Devil”: 1917-2017
Conservatives have had a very hard time getting over President Trump’s much-repeated response to Fox News anchor Bill O’Reilly’s calling Russian president Vladimir Putin “a killer”. Replied Trump: “There are a lot of killers. We have a lot of killers. You think our country is so innocent?” One could almost feel a bit sorry for O’Reilly as he struggled to regain his composure in the face of such blasphemy. Had any American establishment media star ever heard such a thought coming from the mouth of an American president? From someone on the radical left, yes, but from the president? Senator John McCain on the ...
READ MORE
The End of Empire
The American empire is coming to an end. The U.S. economy is being drained by wars in the Middle East and vast military expansion around the globe. It is burdened by growing deficits, along with the devastating effects of deindustrialization and global trade agreements. Our democracy has been captured and destroyed by corporations that steadily demand more tax cuts, more deregulation and impunity from prosecution for massive acts of financial fraud, all the while looting trillions from the U.S. treasury in the form of bailouts. The nation has lost the power and respect needed to induce allies in Europe, Latin ...
READ MORE
The Balkan Vlachs (3)
The Vlachs in Greece Many researchers and scholars judge that the largest part of the Balkan Vlachs is concentrated in Greece. The census of 1935 recorded 19,703 Vlachs in Greece, but according to the last census in Greece that allowed people to express their ethnic identity (in 1951), there were 39,855 Vlachs in this state.[1] However, a real number of the Vlachs in Greece today is up to 120,000.[2] The Vlachs in a post-war Greece are not acknowledged as an ethnic or national group for the very reason that Greece from the mid-1950s does not recognize an existence of any national or ...
READ MORE
70 Years of Disinformation: How the CIA Funded Opinion Magazines in Europe
When an intelligence agency arranges to disseminated fake news it is called “disinformation” and it is a subset of what is referred to as covert action, basically secret operations run in a foreign country to influence opinion or to disrupt the functioning of a government or group that is considered to be hostile.During the Cold War, disinformation operations were run by many of the leading players in both the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and in the opposition Warsaw Pact. Sometimes the activity and the sponsorship were clearly visible, as when Radio Free Europe and Radio Moscow would exchange barbs about ...
READ MORE
Who was US Special Representative to Kosovo Frank G. Wisner?
On December 19, 2005, US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice announced the appointment of Ambassador Frank G. Wisner as the Special Representative of the US Secretary of State to the Kosovo Status Talks. Who is Frank G. Wisner, Jr.? If his name sounds familiar that is because he is the son of Frank Gardiner Wisner, Sr., the CIA agent most responsible for the recruitment of Nazis by the US government after World War II. A former member of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), the World War II precursor to the CIA, Frank G. Wisner, Sr., was one of the most infamous ...
READ MORE
Saudi Arab Islamist beheading Serbs in Bosnia in 1992
A Serb from Bosnia, General Mladic, protected Muslim civilians and gave them buses, food, and water to leave fighting zones. There was no genocide over the Muslim population in Srebrenica like mainstream media want you to believe – there was no genocide over Bosniaks because all Bosnian Muslims victims were jihad fighters who had been killed during fight (in war). Even the so-called „tribunal“ in The Hague for ex-Yugoslavia admitted that there was no genocide!The President of Bosnia-Herzegovina in the 1990s, Alija IzetbegovićIn Srebrenica, there was a massacre over Serbian civilians: the youngest victim was a 4 years old boy ...
READ MORE
100th Anniversary of Australian Beersheba Charge, UK Balfour Declaration & Palestinian Genocide Commencement
There are 3 Apartheid Israel-related centenaries this week, namely (1) the victorious 31 October 1917 charge of the Australian Light Horse at Beersheba that led to conquest of Palestine by Britain and massive famine, (2) the nefarious and racist UK Balfour Declaration of 2 November 1917  that gave Palestine to Zionists as a Jewish Homeland as an inducement to help keep Russia in WW1, and (3) commencement of the Palestine Genocide (2 million Palestinian deaths from violence, 0.1 million, or imposed deprivation, 1.9 million, since WW1). History ignored yields history repeated and genocide ignored yields genocide repeated [1]. Anniversaries are useful ...
READ MORE
Kosovo’s Great Martyr
The Battle and the Nation The consciousness of a distinct Serbian ethnic identity had been present among the Serbs since the times of the founder of an independent medieval Serbian state, veliki župan (Grand Duke) Stefan Nemanja (1166−1196).[1] These consciousnesses were further strengthened by both when Serbia became a kingdom in 1217 and with the establishment of an autocephalous archbishopric in 1219 as a national independent (Christian Orthodox) church.[2] However, the Battle of Kosovo (on the morning of June 28th, 1389)[3] which the Serbs de facto lost to the Ottoman Turks and the death of a Serbian ruler, Prince Lazar Hrebeljanović ...
READ MORE
The Myth of Hiroshima
With rare exception, the question of whether the atomic bombs were necessary to end World War Two is debated only deep within the safety of academic circles. Could a land invasion have been otherwise avoided? Would more diplomacy have achieved the same ends without the destruction of two cities? Could an atomic test on a deserted island have convinced the Japanese? Was the surrender instead driven primarily by the entry of the Soviets into the Pacific War, which, by historical accident, took place two days after Hiroshima—and the day before Nagasaki was immolated? But it is not only the history of the ...
READ MORE
“Democracy is Pure Fantasy”: Trump vs. Clinton
It’s all over but the postmortems. Trump and Clinton are their parties’ presumptive nominees. Choice for voters in November amounts to death by hanging or firing squad. Democracy is pure fantasy. None whatever exists. Trump was the last GOP aspirant left standing after all others dropped out, an unlikely choice, a surprise winner, prevailing despite party bosses opposing him.Democrat power brokers chose Clinton before primary/caucus season began. The race was over before it started.Voters in November get to choose between a dirty business as usual billionaire racist, demagogue and a recklessly dangerous neocon racketeer, war criminal, Wall Street tool she ...
READ MORE
President Obama’s Farewell Speech
Origins of images: Facebook, Twitter, Wikimedia, Wikipedia, Flickr, Google, Imageinjection & Pinterest. Read our Disclaimer/Legal Statement! Donate to Support Us We would like to ask you to consider a small donation to help our team keep working. We accept no advertising and rely only on you, our readers, to keep us digging the truth on history, global politics and international relations. [wpedon id="4696" align="left"]
READ MORE
Financial Times Finally Prints the Unvarnished Truth: Kiev is the Violent Aggressor in East Ukraine
Even those in Donetsk who originally supported Kiev have come to realize that Ukraine is waging a war against its own people. The Ukrainian army’s shelling has turned many formerly pro-Ukrainian locals against Kiev Although this article tries to make the people of Donetsk appear gullible and indoctrinated, it does make one incredible admission: Kiev is waging a vicious war against its own people—something that East Ukrainians will never forget, and probably never forgive. This article originally appeared in Financial Times As world leaders convened in Minsk this week to decide the fate of east Ukraine, Tatiana Prussova, a teacher at Khartsysk school ...
READ MORE
Orwell at the UN: Obama Re-Defines Democracy as a Country that Supports U.S. Policy
In his Orwellian September 28, 2015 speech to the United Nations, President Obama said that if democracy had existed in Syria, there never would have been a revolt against Assad. By that, he meant ISIL. Where there is democracy, he said, there is no violence or revolution.This was his threat to promote revolution, coups and violence against any country not deemed a “democracy.” In making this hardly-veiled threat, he redefined the word in the vocabulary of international politics. Democracy is the CIA’s overthrow of Mossedegh in Iran to install the Shah. Democracy is the overthrow of Afghanistan’s secular government by ...
READ MORE
Ten Lies Told about World War I
This Remembrance Day will doubtless see strenuous efforts by some to justify the fruitless bloodbath that was the First World War. Revisionist commentators have long attempted to rehabilitate the conflict as necessary and just, but the arguments do not stand up. It does no service to the memory of the dead to allow any illusions in the justice or necessity of war, particularly so when the precedents will be used to argue for the next ‘necessary’ conflict. From the causes of the war, to its prosecution and its results, here are the counter-arguments to ten common pro-war ploys.1. The war ...
READ MORE
A Royal Shame: Abdullah Leaves a Legacy of Regional Militancy
King Abdullah is being eulogized in the most unrealistic ways possible, from CNN designating him as a “reformer” to Chuck Hagel calling him “a powerful voice for tolerance, moderation and peace — in the Islamic world and across the globe.” Israeli President Reuven Rivlin takes the cake, however, by proclaiming that “his smart policy contributed greatly to Middle East stability.” None of these characterizations are true in any way, as Abdullah’s main legacy isn’t one of reform, tolerance, and regional stability, but of destruction, hate, and regional instability. Every contemporary Mideast problem except for the Israel-Palestine issue can be directly ...
READ MORE
Racism in the United States
The Legacy of Slobodan Milosevic
‘Trumpism’ is Symptom of Decades-Long Imperial Arrogance
Kosovo and Metohija – Return to UNSC Resolution 1244
Is Washington the Most Corrupt Government in History?
The United States and the “Russian Devil”: 1917-2017
The End of Empire
The Balkan Vlachs (3)
70 Years of Disinformation: How the CIA Funded Opinion Magazines in Europe
Who was US Special Representative to Kosovo Frank G. Wisner?
Bosnian Muslim Genocide against the Serbs in Srebrenica Municipality in 1992-1995 (Photo Album)
100th Anniversary of Australian Beersheba Charge, UK Balfour Declaration & Palestinian Genocide Commencement
Kosovo’s Great Martyr
The Myth of Hiroshima
“Democracy is Pure Fantasy”: Trump vs. Clinton
President Obama’s Farewell Speech
Financial Times Finally Prints the Unvarnished Truth: Kiev is the Violent Aggressor in East Ukraine
Orwell at the UN: Obama Re-Defines Democracy as a Country that Supports U.S. Policy
Ten Lies Told about World War I
A Royal Shame: Abdullah Leaves a Legacy of Regional Militancy
FOLLOW US ON OUR SOCIAL PLATFORMS
Share
About Policraticus 1658 Articles
SHORT LEGAL DISCLAIMER: The website’s owner & editor-in-chief has no official position on any issue published at this website. The views of the authors presented at this website do not necessarily coincide with the opinion of the owner & editor-in-chief of the website. The contents of all material (articles, books, photos, videos…) are of sole responsibility of the authors. The owner & editor-in-chief of this website is not morally, scientifically or legally responsible for any inaccurate or incorrect statement in the contents of all material found on this website. The owner & editor-in-chief of this website is not responsible for the content of external internet sites. No advertising, government or corporate funding for the functioning of this website. The owner & editor-in-chief and authors are not morally, scientifically or legally responsible for any inaccurate or incorrect statement in the text and material found on the website www.global-politics.eu